Secret agencies, media and the national interest

Published: May 13, 2014
The writer is a columnist, poet and a CSS officer

The writer is a columnist, poet and a CSS officer

Secret agencies and the media have a long history of association and this relationship continues and will keep on continuing. The two champions of democracy, the US and the UK, are known for their elaborate vast secret systems of secret agencies, CIA and MI6 and MI5, and we all know the influence both have on their politics and governance.

Long ago, the media was confined to a few newspapers, magazines and radio and television channels. The CIA had not been created yet. US President Harry S Truman founded the Central Intelligence Group in 1946 to bring public opinion under American government influence. The National Security Act was passed the next year in 1947 under which the CIA was formed. Under Article 102(a) of this Act, the CIA director general was given vast authority, which included making public opinion favourable towards the ruling administration. The White House assigned the CIA the authority of a psychological operation in 1954 with the objective of creating propaganda and of binding the media within the confines of the national interest.

This included three kinds of propaganda: ‘white’, ‘grey’ and ‘black’. White propaganda was approved by the White House and included all kinds of classified and non-classified information. Grey propaganda was something whose source of information the CIA could not disclose. Its objective was to stop the hands that were against US foreign policy and US interests. Black propaganda consisted of information that apparently goes against the policy of the US government and was something that it could categorically deny in public. Such information is usually fictitious, but the intended audience may believe it to be true. Journalists across the world are purchased for disseminating such information.

In 1973, the CIA disclosed to The Washington Star News (it closed down in 1982) that 30 American journalists across the world were actually employees of the agency. They all were members of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, which was later exposed as being funded by the CIA. In the 1990s, the CIA started a project to promote a peculiar kind of entertainment in South America and Hollywood was used to produce films for this purpose.

These included The Recruit, The Sum of All Fears, Enemy of the State and Bad Company. Articles against communists were also commissioned. Operation Mockingbird was started in 1951 and the objective was to produce news that would turn people against communism. The National Endowment for Democracy was established in 1983 to force the implementation of democracy across the world and under this project funds were provided to NGOs, human rights organisations and political parties.

In 1963, US President John F Kennedy was assassinated and some suspected that the CIA was involved. His successor, President Lyndon Johnson, set up a commission headed by the then US Chief Justice, Earl Warren, but the agency refused to provide any kind of information to it. And as the commission released its report, the agency started sponsoring a series of books and articles against it.

The history of MI5 and MI6 is not much different. Lawrence of Arabia is one such example. Recent examples include Operation Rockingham in 1990-91, under which cooked-up information was to be provided about Iraq’s nuclear weapons. Under this project, the entire media, government agencies and even the office of the prime minister were given fake information through forged documents, video films and other formats to convince them that Iraq posed a threat to world peace.

A more astonishing fact is that the relation between the media and the secret agencies established in the national interest also has influence over the judicial systems of both the US and the UK. The Justice and Security Act of 2013 provided legal cover to set up courts to deal with cases relating to the secret agencies. The mechanism for doing this is called ‘Closed Material Procedures’, under which a secret agency can provide a court material which only the court or the lawyers with the necessary security clearance can see. The accused is not provided a full list of the charges against him or her. Agents can appear in such courts to provide evidence as well. Such courts have been working in the US since 1978 and are called intelligence surveillance courts.

This relationship between the secret agencies, media and the courts in the name of national interest is seen in all democracies. Secret agencies plan how to make someone win an election. They plan how to carry corporate money to which political leader. Important persons like Princess Diana and JFK were eliminated when the question of national interest arose. Secret agencies also decide where and when to wage a battle and against whom, who is to be befriended and who is to be treated like an enemy. As a matter of fact, words are put into the mouths of democratic rulers and these parliamentarians utter these as if it was their national duty. This is the reality and status of the democratic system prevailing all over the world.

But despite the fact that the secret agencies enjoy all this authority in the name of national interest, people raise their voices against them. During the Cold War it was almost impossible to imagine that a media group could set up a TV channel or publish a newspaper with Soviet money or on instruction from the Soviets or run a campaign against a policy which that country had adopted as reflective of its national interest. Even the so-called independent media of the world cannot think of making any independent documentary on the life of Osama bin Laden and run it continuously.

A producer tried to make such a film and then what happened to him is a long story. The secret agencies, media and courts do not oppose one another in any of the democratic countries. That happens only when people feel that their newly found media power is too great. They start feeling that they have become king-makers and policymakers. They start feeling that they can make and break governments. These people should look around to see the ground realities and study history.

Published in The Express Tribune, May 13th, 2014.

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Reader Comments (62)

  • sabi
    May 13, 2014 - 12:41AM

    Lol this is really an op-ed worth reading!.Which secret agency of the world hatch conspiracies to conquer its own country other than ?.


  • Xenia
    May 13, 2014 - 12:51AM

    Very informative and Thought provoking. Well done Mr Jan.


  • sabi
    May 13, 2014 - 1:00AM

    Here is a glimpse of what actually is going on in urdu media.Because of such ‘experts every second person is a ‘master’ in international relations and miserably fails to look into his own backyard.


  • Parvez
    May 13, 2014 - 1:00AM

    I wouldn’t have expected anything else from you……..interesting indeed.


  • s.kavi
    May 13, 2014 - 1:13AM

    why are you mincing your words? Why don’t you say that you are for censorship and support the DEEP STATE wholeheartedly at the expense of democracy.


  • Nadir
    May 13, 2014 - 1:21AM

    You are strategic asset!


  • Hallucinating
    May 13, 2014 - 1:27AM

    What is the writer trying to say? Has he picked random paragraphs from already published articles and just joined them in some haphazard manner? Sure looks that way.


  • leader
    May 13, 2014 - 2:17AM

    Bad joke by this corrupt bureaucrat. shame that he is servant yet writes, appears on tv for analysis, run businesses, let alone the moral brigade he runs…


  • Legend
    May 13, 2014 - 4:39AM

    Brilliant analysis! Seems like some of the other commentators on this article have had too many oreos. They have failed to understand the point Mr. Maqbool is trying to make.


  • Anonymous
    May 13, 2014 - 7:09AM

    Did CIA or MI6 stole elections or made IJI?are heads of those agencies appointed by civilians? Does CIA boss leaves the job because of inappropriate e- maill?
    What a nonsense that you are comparing those agencies which are under the foot of civilians? They follow all the protocol as written . No agency is country within country. Does common man in USA and UK know who are heads of those agencies?
    Messers tribune what is happening that you are bringing these people on your panel. Sir you have different type of readers. This person who is mouth piece of Taliban and agencies and spews poison ever day on TV.


  • Nikki
    May 13, 2014 - 7:59AM

    Well Sir, but you have not metioned other secret agencies in the World and regional agencies indeed, ours ISI and then Indian RAW?Your foucus is CIA only.
    Please do spend time to on these two agnecies. Being Pakistani I am interested in my region rather to jump other perepheries.
    I am sure now CIA exposes ,gone the days are when nobodye even had ever clue about CIA’s presens, now its director is very easily located by local people.
    Dont worry Pakistan’s national interests are in safe hands.


  • Nikki
    May 13, 2014 - 8:00AM


    Every Pakistani can express his positive views. Constitutionally, there is no bar.


  • Ch. Allah Daad
    May 13, 2014 - 8:11AM

    This man is most unstable person in entire country.


  • Mirza Aslam Beg
    May 13, 2014 - 9:10AM

    Very many thanks for enlightening us.


  • Laiq Ahmed
    May 13, 2014 - 9:10AM

    This guy is an absolute —— !


  • Realist
    May 13, 2014 - 9:14AM

    Before getting personal with the author, whom I don’t know, I would like to point out that what he is saying is in deed correct. From Israel to the US, vibrant “democracies” continue to heavily influence and censor their media for national security purposes. Whether you agree to disagree with such a policy is a different policy — but it is fact.


  • Saleem Khan
    May 13, 2014 - 9:19AM

    I love the way you effortlessly debunk the games of Infidels. You are our great hero of Islam.Recommend

  • Mirza
    May 13, 2014 - 9:33AM

    You write “In 1973, the CIA disclosed to The Washington Star News (it closed down in 1982) that 30 American journalists across the world were actually employees of the agency.”
    Really very authentic reference from a dead newspaper almost half a century ago! Could not find a better reference let alone a proof. Even if this is true these were the “American journalists” not Pakistanis or even Asians to affect us in any way.
    With all the vitriol and venom against democracies in general and proving them as US agent the author forgot the facts. It was Gen Ayub who gave Pakistani air bases to Americans to operate their U2 spy planes over Soviets. It was the Gen not a democratically elected leader who signed us in SEATO and CENTO defense pacts with the US. It was the first elected PM who pulled us out of both SEATO and CENTO who later was hanged by the generals. In addition what Mush gave to Americans is still a secret. Another general drunken womanizer who surrendered half the country and kept waiting for the US 6th Fleet Enterprise is never mentioned.


  • M Ali Khan
    May 13, 2014 - 9:46AM

    Mr OMJ wants to be the next Joseph McCarthy.


  • Hassaan Rashid
    May 13, 2014 - 9:49AM

    Orya Maqbool has narrated some facts. But Does he supports these oractices? The issue with these kind if columnist is that they copy and paste form westerm media, but then they donot support the suggestions given by the same. They r not for pluralism, liberty and freedom of speech.


  • Murad Malik
    May 13, 2014 - 10:02AM

    the author writes, that CIA made started a project to promote peculiar types of movies, furthering anti-communists agenda etc in the 1990’s, then he gives the example of movies such as “sum of all fears”. First of all this movie was launced in 2002, and not in the 1990’s, and if anyone has watched this movie, it had nothing to do with communism, or a battle between, capitalism or communism. Mr Jan, ( i hate how that sounds ) should do proper research, and then come out with such assumptions.


  • MAD
    May 13, 2014 - 10:05AM

    Well honestly its hard to argue with much of what has been written in this article. It is quite factual regardless of whether you like the author or not.


  • Umer
    May 13, 2014 - 10:14AM


    What is the writer trying to say? Has he picked random paragraphs from already published articles and just joined them in some haphazard manner?

    That’s his style. Makes some simpleton think he as actually said something worthwhile.


  • nadeem
    May 13, 2014 - 10:16AM

    The author conveniently ignores one point: intelligence agencies are not fighting for national security, their real goal is to keep the Army politically in charge of Pakistan. Their objective is to keep the civilians from taking away the veto power Army holds on major decisions. Since the Consitution allots no political role for our ambitous, power-hungry generals, they use the intelligence agencies to get what they want and call it the ‘national interest’. After holding absolute power for half a century, the military does not want to give it up, particularly when power has also brought in a lot of money.


  • Feroz
    May 13, 2014 - 10:26AM

    Tailoring facts to suit ones own logic is the favourite pastime of the Media. Other than the old communist States how many secret agencies of the Western world have made citizens asking awkward questions, disappear ??? Their media continues to be more vibrant than anywhere else in the world.


  • Haris Chaudhry
    May 13, 2014 - 10:31AM

    This ‘conspiracy mindset’ and a load of non relevant, ad-hoc joinery of various ‘happenings’ to manufacture a point as is very very common amongst the ‘experts’ in Pakistan always looks at one side of the coin to suit and propagate their views !!

    It was the NY Times, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, LA Times and the like that brought the CIA, FBI and US Presidents on their knees by actively exposing the lies, conspiracies and the ‘secret’ programs – It was the media that did that without any fear or favour !

    It also happened to be none other than “Washington Post” in USA and “Guardian” in UK that secured and published the Wikileaks and Edward Snowden’s confessions ! That was the single biggest setback to American Gov and CIA in psychological warfare in 50 years as per the US Senate Intelligence Committee !

    Yet, None of the journalists were murdered as a result ! The newspapers were not shutdown !No calls for revenge, not a single gov functionary asking for heads to roll. That is called “Democracy”.

    For Gods’ sake, stop drawing parallels between the greatest democracies on planet and Pakistan !Recommend

  • Ussama Yaqub
    May 13, 2014 - 10:41AM

    This selective use/abuse of information is exactly what is wrong with us. The reality is that we are facing a polio travel ban, are UK & US? We are slipping on all human development indicators, are UK & US? We have millions of children out of school, do UK & US? How many journalists were shot or have claimed to have been shot by CIA or MI6?

    The pseudo intellectual conspiracy theorist will conveniently ignore all this, he will however illuminate us on the virtues of a secret service organization and will go to great lengths to prove to us how it’s excesses are comparable to that of CIA and MI6!


  • Mazhar
    May 13, 2014 - 10:47AM

    Please would you dare elaborate about such white, grey and black propagandists in Pakistani media? I know one black propagandist – Zaid Hamid.


  • adil
    May 13, 2014 - 10:52AM

    Every single fact in this article is made up. Lawrence of Arabia a MI6 conspiracy ? Really? So the whole gay sub-text in the film and the damning indictment of colonialism was a conspiracy to control the Middle East? Has he even seen the movie? The Sum of all Fears was a book before a movie with little CIA involvement – and the movie and book are quite pro-Muslim. Read the book which is about the Middle East then see the movie whcih inexplicably has Nazi’s in it. Enemy of the State was pro-privacy and anti government – why would teh CIA sponsor it. Also it was about the NSA which is a whole other branch separate from the CIA. MI5 has no jurisdiction to operate globally. The CIA was already operating in WW2 (pre-1946) known as the OSS. Its main function is not public opinion forming but espionage. The collaborations with Hollywood are often commercial in nature and no different than what ISPR did with Waar – or when a municipal authority allows a film production crew to use a city or police in it. This man has not seen any of these movies, has no idea of history and was actually a bureaucrat – which considering our governments performance automatically disqualifies him from having any actual worth. I’d like to ask him what has he accomplished at all over the course of his career that makes him an expert?


  • kk
    May 13, 2014 - 10:58AM

    believe it or not these r the facts,now u can easily make out which anchor of the media is getting lots of information without any effort


  • Aamir W.
    May 13, 2014 - 11:21AM

    Yes, it seems quite extra ordinary how the secret agencies jeopardize the function of a democracy. I fail to understand few facts but given the noble stature of Mr. Jan I would mend my words or rather wont challenge his worthy opinion. In my opinion, we are striving too hard to unveil conspiracies in every matter. Yes, its a fact that media is the most powerful tool for any system of government. But the question is if that such conspiracies are actually true that means democracy doesn’t prevail. The right governance is to control the systems in any setup be it democracy or dictatorship. We need to develop an opinion as a nation whether all developed countries have ‘democracy’ or ‘democratically elected dictatorship controlled by agencies’? Had democracy been the perfect form of governance, US never had to create ‘The National Endowment for Democracy’


  • Junaid
    May 13, 2014 - 12:25PM

    What a depressing article! As an ordinary citizen and supporter of democracy, I feel like a chicken after reading it.


  • farrukh
    May 13, 2014 - 12:52PM

    Thanks Sir for apprising us on this important topic. The tell-tale signs are there for all too see, but we are too blind to register them and connect the dots. It is no wonder that the end of times is referred to as the ‘Great Age of Deception’ – Nothing is what it seems. Keep up the good work.


  • May 13, 2014 - 12:58PM

    So I see CIA & RAW -sponsored commentators are in full force here! Making your handlers and paymasters proud!


  • Zaid
    May 13, 2014 - 1:04PM

    Great Article by Mr.Orya maqbool.These agencies has media as their best tool to hide and justify their hedious crimes and lies.It’s not the first time that the media is exposed, working on foreign agenda of their patrons.


  • Mustafa Mumtaz
    May 13, 2014 - 2:14PM

    So our Pakistani beaurcrats have arbitarilly decided who the killers of princess diana and JFK were. Who corrects and marks our CSS exams ?


  • May 13, 2014 - 2:36PM

    Good article. Why this article was written we all know because of The “Mirs” of Media.
    Food for thought, previous government is quiet on the media issue supporting the famous Media house. Current government is creating confusion and trying to support the famous media house. Neighboring countries Afg- India – both going to be the President and the PM are not friends of Pakistan. Our intelligence is fighting all the corners. May Allah give the righteous, the victory and diminish the hypocrites.


  • Malik
    May 13, 2014 - 2:39PM

    Well written article – also Media and Judiciary work under shadow of agencies in Pakistan. They control Environment. Their existence is based on National Fear that someone else will take their place, if they will not operate. However, we still need to re-check the system in which they make decisions. If we will allow few people to control its operation – we will not see sustainability in country we will be stuck by short-sighted decision making like cultivating hate creating Mullahs factories, an easily influenced decisions by Enemies external and internals to forge decisions in their interests like loosing Semi Final from India on wish of Manmohan and pushing Indian influence in Pakistan political matters. Such organizations do not run for matter of National Interest but suffer selfishness jerks by people who want to become powerful. Public opinion is easily changeable matter – Use of National and Religious values become so evident that everyone knows secret of Tahir ul Qadari and Imran Khan that they work to protect someone else not what they are saying. And their extreme love of power put them in position to always hear Yes Sir. In case they hear difference of opinion they have all right to ban you or kill you examples are seen against Geo TV.


  • Saleem
    May 13, 2014 - 2:56PM

    With people like the author forming our bureaucracy it is little wonder why the country is in such a mess.


  • Ahmed
    May 13, 2014 - 3:20PM

    Now this is just a way to get cheap publicity. People read the tribunr for journalism, not sermonism. Or, you know, plain bull.


  • Rabnawaz
    May 13, 2014 - 4:39PM

    No offense but I am a bit disappointed at this masterpiece of cherry picking.The writer seems to be one of those shining patriots who routinely criticize foreign countries, but steer clear of saying anything critical about the affairs of his country. I am sorry to have hurt someone patriotic feelings but to me the article is good example of selectivity of facts and can be called as Afghanistanism in journalistic parlance.


  • Rex Minor
    May 13, 2014 - 5:00PM

    I have not read the article but has the author referred to the NSA ‘PRISM’ program and its spectrum or that Intenet that we using was the CIA project? I will read the article later to see if it includes classified information.

    Rex Minor


  • nomi
    May 13, 2014 - 5:53PM

    You see Mr. Jaan all this countries play games but do not punch over their weight. In the recent crisis of Ukraine, they could not be so successful because they knew that punching over their weight.

    Pakistani strategic planner have always overestimated their power and their countries strength. The kind of strategic fantasies Pakistani planners have indulged in is absolutely disproportionate to the endurance of a state like Pakistan.


  • Anticorruption
    May 13, 2014 - 6:11PM

    Strange that ET printed this piece. Some commentators above have argued that difference of opinion should be tolerated. This is valid, provided it is a difference of opinion and not a case of wrong facts being cited. This article has factual issues. How could the editor ignore that? The answer obviously is that our newspapers are happy to print anything without letting fact checking get in the way.


  • sabi
    May 13, 2014 - 7:04PM

    The author is,like many,known for quoting facts out of context to promote his screwed doing so he blatantly lies and when cross questioned he has no answer but to blame opponents as traitors.They are villains of society.


  • Muneer
    May 13, 2014 - 7:32PM

    All secret agencies do that.


  • Mohammed
    May 13, 2014 - 9:48PM

    CIA shot their very own president and u say they are under the foot of law!Recommend

  • Rex Minor
    May 13, 2014 - 9:59PM


    You underevaluate the author’s knowledge and capability and question the contents of the article without specifics and underestimate the competence of ET moderator and the integrity of the News Paper. This is all very negative and will get us nowhere! Facts are that the NSA today with its ‘Prism’ program is able to see the Prime Minister of Pakistan taking bath in his villa, and to monitor and record the entire communication data within and with other countries including the E mails and telephone conversations. Lord Snowdon, the man now sitting in Moscow and his associates such as Julian Assange have provided this classified information. Before this the renown news papers were the only one to provide the readers some classified information which they obtained against cash payments from the Government employees.

    Rex Minor
    PS The German government which gives great credibility to written contracts has asked the American administration a No Spy agreement( since what the NSA is currently doing violates the German law) which Mr Obama has turned down.


  • Wasif Mumtaz
    May 13, 2014 - 10:00PM

    True to the core@nadeem:


  • FilmFreak
    May 13, 2014 - 11:21PM

    The Recruit, The Sum of All Fears, Enemy of the State and Bad Company.

    None of the movies are about communism….
    Looks like the author did some IMDB shopping without realizing the plot of the films…


  • Sexton Blake
    May 14, 2014 - 1:13AM

    It is amazing how people support intelligence hoodlums, the way they support a cricket team. I will discuss the pluses and minuses of so called Western democracy another day.


  • Rex Minor
    May 14, 2014 - 2:17AM

    Pakistan Government has the advantage being the partner of the Americans in war of terror. They could approach Mr Obama and ask for the information about the target violence against Pakistani journalists. The NSA can not only provide the information but the video clip and the recorded conversation of the people who planned and participated in the act. Have a nice day fellows.

    Rex Minor


  • much needed
    May 14, 2014 - 4:41AM

    I will look forward to your future articles. The tribune truly needs you sir.
    Thanks for the brilliant analysis


  • Al-Bakistan
    May 14, 2014 - 4:15PM

    Most of the spy agencies in the world are not so internally-focussed as Pakistan’s spy agency.


  • Sexton Blake
    May 14, 2014 - 5:19PM

    Dear realist,
    I do not totally disagree with your opinion, but would hardly describe Israel and America as vibrant democracies. They go through the motions of democracy such as voting, but somehow they have lost there way and perhaps changed the concept of what democracy used to be in order to satisfy shadowy minority interests. I think Israel has always been a lost cause, but the US has certainly changed when compared to what the Grand Republic used to be, and I do not think we will ever get it back. America in tandem with Israel appears to have changed into an oligarchy, or at the very least is well on the way. This type of government also appears to be developing everywhere. I think Mr Jan possibly supported me with this concept in his talk about propaganda, clandestine organizations and their cooperation with the corporate media. I would be interested in the opinions of other people on this matter.


  • Ali Tanoli
    May 14, 2014 - 5:45PM

    There is no comment from across the border wonders why????


  • Rex Minor
    May 14, 2014 - 10:55PM

    Sexton Blake,

    You are on spot sir, and this ‘Realist’ is making it too sample talking about vibrant democracies from USA to Israel; though both have crertain comman elements, but none of them have any democratic institutions that had once and wanted to develope further. It is easy to use the term democracy for a Government which is formed, as you said by voting process, without understanding what democracy is and what it entails. There is one thing certain, a democracy cannot provide to the people for which they are not suitable, in terms of their culture and traditions. It will though give them a system of Government which they seek.
    In Germany there is a federal sytem of Government, whereas in switzerland there is a direct democracy on crucial issues. The UK democratic Government is against any initiative or change which has no precedence in their history,, whereas the Yankees will try anything new for change, no matter how regressive it might be and follow the gang ho process. They torture their prisoners and keep them in over 120 bases around the world and in Guatanimo prison. They have a congress of elected people who on paper oversees every action of the administration and have the authority to declare war, but who cares, in practice their recent Presidents call themselves publicly the C in C of the miltary and have started the wars without the approval.of the congress, and their Senate committee chairwoman said on torture hearing surprisingly that she was not aware of what went on, since it undermines the values of our democarcy. and I can go on..

    Rex Minor


  • dr malalai
    May 15, 2014 - 12:44PM

    consensus prevails among the conscious people in the world about the superiority of the democracy as a system of governance,particularly in a federal state.because it is lead by the representative of the public, who in turn are directed by the public opinion,so it could be safely concluded that it is a government of the public, by the public and for the public.
    in democracy, system is governed by the political leader through specialized agencies like roads are constructed and maintained by NHA and water is managed by Irrigation is assigned to the National Army and extraction of information with some selected and special assignments ultimately related to the security are assigned to the secret agencies to a limited extent and perpetual supervision of political leadership.
    Mr. jan has quoted biased facts, which shows only one side of the coin
    .unfortunately, we are a divided nation with many more problems with neighbor. international powers and local agents. we need to be more cautious and careful.such a situation could only be handled by visionary and strong political leadership.the contemporary leadership might not be up to the expectation, let the democratic institutions strengthen,which will subsequently evolve more responsive leaders. i personally don’t agree if a strong unquestionable institution can deliver particularly in contemporary melliue .their sacrifices and achievements are laudable but they should remain under public command.


  • csmann
    May 15, 2014 - 4:06PM

    The author is one of those who went on a tirade and abuse against Malala and her book ,without even reading the book.He will prefer communism to democracy.What can be expected of a biased person.He is one of those that spins controversy theories in Pakistan.And he gets his exposure in the media.He knows anything against USA/UK sells well in Pakistan,so why not use it to project himself.


  • Sexton Blake
    May 15, 2014 - 11:00PM

    Dear csmann,
    Your missive went roaming around on so many tangents that it would be difficult to answer or discuss them without writing a 10.000 word dissertation, but that would require some knowledge of what point you were trying to make. Are we supposed join all the disparate points together, and in which order? For example Malala, Malala’s book, Mr Jan’s attitude and abuse of Malala and/or her book? What type of communism: theoretical communism, the old Russian communism, Chinese communism? What type of democracy: the original Greek democracy, so called US democracy, or perhaps the Swiss type of Democracy? Which one of the controversial Pakistan theories, you mentioned, or all of them? In regard to anti US/UK attitudes, which project Mr Jan, where is he being projected to, and should we limit the projection to or by a mere 183 million Pakistanis or the other 5 billion people who feel the same way? These are just a few difficulties you have raised, and I hope my points have helped you? If you are feeling generous, and have the time, perhaps you could provide links to the points you have raised. Also, I would be interested to know how you discovered that Mr Jan has not read Malala’s book. It would help me in my research


  • May 16, 2014 - 1:16AM

    “Operation Mockingbird was started in 1951” This isn’t so. Mockiingbird began in 1946 — it was conceived by Allen Dulles a year before the CIA was even chartered by the National Security Act.


  • Sexton Blake
    May 16, 2014 - 12:47PM

    @Alex Constantine:
    Dear Alex,
    I do not know why you mentioned 1946 for Operation Mockingbird, and you may well be correct. However, Wikipedia are stating the 1950’s as the starting point. Perhaps Wikipedia have got it it wrong?


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