Keeping Pashto alive: The last word

Published: January 12, 2014
A web developer from Peshawar develops a digital, multi-purpose Pashto dictionary to keep the language alive. DESIGN BY KIRAN SHAHID

A web developer from Peshawar develops a digital, multi-purpose Pashto dictionary to keep the language alive. DESIGN BY KIRAN SHAHID

Despite being our primary source of communication with the outside world, language is often taken for granted. It is estimated that one language dies every 14 days, according to a National Geographic report.

To bridge the existing linguistic gap in Pakistan between Urdu and regional languages, a young boy from Peshawar and three others have found a dynamic way to bring Pashto to speakers and non-speakers alike. Their unique online dictionary,, has gathered loyal users and a growing database.

After completing his Masters in Computer Sciences from City University Peshawar in 2011, 24-year-old Abdul Muqsit from Chamkani village (seven kilometers outside of Peshawar) collaborated with three of his colleagues to launch a software house called SoftEmblems. Though the original trio of colleagues moved to Kabul and Muqsit moved to the UAE for work, marking the end of the software house, he was soon joined by three others whom he met through the internet. Muqsit’s new team consists of Tayyab Khan, a Pashto poet based in Islamabad, Farhad Malakzai, a Linguistic Studies student in India, and Shafiq Gigyani, an MBA student in Peshawar, who now run the using their diverse linguistic backgrounds and expertise.

Abdul Muqsit, the web-preneur and Pashto enthusiast.

The Pashto dictionary is hosted by Pukhtoogle — Muqsit’s first successful digital project focusing on Pashto and Peshawar which now has the largest photo gallery of Peshawar and Pukhtuns on the internet with more than 1,500 pictures submitted by photographers and artists.

The Pashto dictionary aims to put Pashto on the linguistic map by allowing both Pashto speakers and non-speakers the chance to explore the language and its grammar. Allowing room for beginners, the handiest feature of the dictionary is the ‘Roman Pashto’ option, which allows users to spell Pashto words in Roman script and eliminates the need to learn the Pashto script.

There is another provision to cater for the differences between Pashto speakers. “There is conflict between Pukhtun tribes regarding dialect, so on the, we placed a section listing 114 tribes and allow for people to discuss the origin and history of the words to refine the list,” explains Muqsit.

With constant improvements and room for change, the Pashto dictionary now has over 16,000 word entries. “We get lots of new and missing words which were not present in the dictionary earlier, we keep adding them to the list once we have verified them,” he says.

Muqsit’s brainchild is not limited to everyday words and basic Pashto as it has room for more complex additions such as names and proverbs. “There are nearly 200 names for boys and girls with meanings on the website and more than 300 proverbs with translation and description,” he says.

Passionate about innovation, Muqsit first discovered his interest in computing when he swapped art for computer studies in the eighth grade after an NGO visited his school in the village. Despite failing to get admission into engineering for his bachelors, he went on to study computer science for his masters. Considering himself lucky in a country where education is not a right but a privilege, he notes that a lot of children miss out on opportunities to grow and innovate. “We just don’t have the resources to the nurture the extraordinary talent of these web developers in Pakistan. I would love to go back home and train, but the violence in Peshawar leaves me speechless.”

 photo AbdulMuqsit_zps52cb4983.jpg

Keeping resource limitations and accessibility in mind, he shares his motivational secret. “I watch a lot of TED talks; they make me think over and over again about creating something unique. These talks are accessible to all and are full of ideas about technology and innovative design.”

He says his mission is not complete, but has a clear vision for the future. “As a web-preneur, I have a long way to go. I want to match the uniqueness of web services like Khan Academy, which is beneficial for visitors and of course, free of cost.”

Next steps

Android App: The Pashto dictionary has an Android app which can be found in the phone’s PlayStore for free.

Book: A New York-based publishing house, Hippocrene Books, will soon publish a hard form of the dictionary. Abdul Muqsit hopes that it will be available in print form within the first quarter of 2014.

Pashto language spellchecker: Abdul Muqsit wants to create the first ever Pashto language spellchecker and plans to launch it for the Android, iPhone and Windows.

Features of the dictionary

•      Multi-search: The dictionary has a three-way search option where a word can be searched in Pashto to English, English to Pashto or in Roman Pashto.

•      Auto-suggestion: If a non-speaker is confused about a new word, just typing the first two or three characters is sufficient as an auto suggestion pops up.

•      Pashto Phonetic Keyboard: This keyboard (available on allows a non-Pashto speaker to type Pashto without installing a script-specific keyboard. For example A can be used for alif and B for bey.

•      Graphic User Interface & User Dashboard: There is a process to add new words or fix incorrect words on the dashboard. The submitted word is first verified, and then approved by the moderators.

•      Pulse System: To cope with such digital menaces such as spamming and incorrect words, a pulse system was developed. If 20% of a user’s submissions have been incorrect, the system will freeze the account.

•           Foreigner-friendly: There are more than 100 daily life sentences which were suggested by some foreigners in a previous version of the dictionary, such as “I am going to Peshawar” (za Peshawar ta zam).


Kamran Khan is a sub-editor on the Peshawar desk of The Express Tribune.

Published in The Express Tribune, Sunday Magazine, January 12th, 2014.

Facebook Conversations

Reader Comments (15)

  • Nazir Ahmed
    Jan 13, 2014 - 11:29AM

    Outstanding work, keep it up


  • Jan 13, 2014 - 11:49AM

    A Very Great enthusiast of Pashto Language and his devotion toward Pashtons Nation in the field of IT is really great and helpful for the people like us who can have no access of such kind of resources. Moxet is the One how give us hope and courage to prove our self in this field and it’s my pleasures to be Moxet friend and follower.
    Once Again my best wishes for this digital Pashton kid for the Future from core of my heart.


  • farhad malakzai
    Jan 13, 2014 - 4:56PM

    I am very thankful and delighted from Abdul Muqsit Khan for giving me such opportunity to serve for my beloved language, this is the result of his formidable services to Pashtun community, that today I can add words to Pashto dictionary once again I would that I appreciate your brilliant work.


  • aman kamran
    Jan 13, 2014 - 5:49PM

    Respect your mother tougue and you respect your mother.Great job and may Allah succeed you.Recommend

  • Salam
    Jan 15, 2014 - 11:09AM



  • yousafhaque
    Jan 15, 2014 - 12:54PM

    Abdul Muqsit dear keeping in view the difficulties you are facing yet your determination to get Pashto dictionary compiled,which I am sure you and your friends will,all I can say is BRAVO.God bless


  • khalid
    Jan 15, 2014 - 3:43PM

    It published on 12 January 2014 not 2015. ET correct the mistake as still one year is left in 2015.Recommend

  • Uzair
    Jan 15, 2014 - 6:05PM

    I would suggest you to register you project with Pukhto Academy at University of Peshawar. Where you can find plenty of Vocabulary, Its really a tough job as I have 8 volumes on Single Pashto Dictionary and still it is incomplete.Recommend

  • Jan 15, 2014 - 7:24PM

    Thank you friends and express tribune for sharing my words with readers, i love to work more for such projects in future inshallah. I am launching the desktop version [Offline] in this week with more easy option and access to the words.

    @ZakirAhmad Shah:
    Bundle of thanks for your appreciation and love.

    I had a conversation with Dr. Salma Shaheen last night, going to digitalis Pashto Academy’s dictionary soon inshallah.


  • Muhammad asim
    Jan 15, 2014 - 11:33PM

    Good work brother.. keep it up.. :) Recommend

  • Muhammad asim
    Jan 15, 2014 - 11:35PM is not opening

  • Wajeeh Khan
    Jan 16, 2014 - 1:06AM

    It would be great if you add audio pronunciation as well. It’s not easy to read pashto so audio pronunciation would help learners to understand it very easily.
    By the way very good work brother. Keep up.


  • Saeed Hassas
    Jan 16, 2014 - 1:41AM

    @Muhammad asim:


  • shah
    Jan 17, 2014 - 4:02AM

    Good work. I appreciate this story and the website it points to.


  • Ch. Allah Daad
    Jan 17, 2014 - 7:15AM

    Pashto is a beautiful language. Keep it up.


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