Our dying cultural heritage

Published: July 9, 2011
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The writer is Distinguished National Professor Emeritus of Linguistic History 
tariq.rahman@tribune.com.pk

The writer is Distinguished National Professor Emeritus of Linguistic History [email protected]bune.com.pk

June 11 was a very hot day in Kuch Khaas, probably the best known private cultural salon in Islamabad. An obscure private organisation called the IPAC — Institute for the Preservation of Arts and Culture — had invited me to a fankar baithak. I didn’t know what this would turn out to be but as musician after musician stood up and talked about how it was only the love of music which kept them in the profession, I understood what was happening. Genuine artists are dying of poverty, indifference and neglect. And yes, despite the Lok Virsa’s National Institute of Folk and Traditional Heritage and a few connoisseurs, those who still meant to teach their dying arts to their children were very few and they persisted despite all odds because of the love for their art and their pride in being ‘the last of the Mohicans’.

The person who had brought these artists together was Umair Jafar — a young man of twenty-eight, with very unlikely beginnings for a patron of dying arts. The son of an army officer, Umair got the usual privileged schooling available in the post-Ziaul Haq period to boys of his class, i.e. large doses of Pakistan Studies and that brand of Islamic studies which prepares one to support the policies of a garrison state. Typically enough, he studied for his MBA at the University of Adelaide in Australia and specialised in corporate strategy. And, even more predictably, he came back to Pakistan where he has worked in the corporate sector, probably spending most of his energies in making rich people richer.

But somewhere in the deep crypts of his being, there was a chord which reverberates to classical music. Yes, classical music, not the lilting film music with romantic words which most of us enjoy. It all began, says Umair, when he heard dhurpad — classical music at its best — performed by three European young women. The dhurpad is so ancient that it is played on the pakhavaj not the tabla. The tabla is said to have been made by cutting the pakhawaj into half and the last expert (ustad) who could play it was Ustad Allah Lok from Faisalabad. But how did the European girls learn such an esoteric art form? The story is that there was a musical family (gharana) called the Talwandi Gharana. This gharana migrated to Pakistan and last year its great performer, Ustad Hafeez Khan, passed away. However, the remaining gharana is in India. They spend their time in Europe as well. This is called the Dagar khandan and some of its ustads are employed by the Rotterdam Music Consortium in Holland. These girls were their students. A flute player among them was so extraordinary that Umair was moved by the idea of creating such people here in Pakistan.

The first step was to find out those who existed. For this Umair, dipped into his own savings and started going around the countryside in search of art and artists. And sure enough, he found practitioners of many art forms. For instance, he found that the borindo is still played by people in Sindh. This instrument is a hollow sphere of baked clay with three holes in it. One plays it like the flute by blowing in it.

At one time it was a popular instrument, but now only Zulfiqar Ali Lund carries in his mind the legacy of centuries. The others are under the earth. Similarly, the sarangi is played by Ustad Allah Rakkha and there are a few survivors of the art of sarod playing. The chang — also called the Jews’ harp — is played by Ijaz Sarhadi. It is a typical musical instrument of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Ijaz’s father, Munir Sarhadi, used to be an acknowledged master of it. The murliyon (murli or been) is played by jogis or snake charmens. Iqbal Jogi was its last master player.

There are other names, both dead and living, but space restricts me to these few. The point is that Umair set up this institute as a one-man venture and, as yet, he has received no funding for it. He argues that the arts are discouraged as Pakistanis are so confused about their identity as to disown the thousands of years of common roots between the peoples of the Indo-Gangetic valleys. The shared cultural heritage of music is denied and, therefore, there is no enthusiasm to keep it alive in Pakistan.

Secondly, there is the debate on listening to singing — samaa — as the books of the Sufis such as Imam Ghazali’s Ihya Ulloom al–Deen and Ali Hujwairi’s Kashful Mahjoob bring out. Though a number of authorities allow samaa under certain conditions — that women and beardless men should not be singing and the songs should not be erotic — there are interpretations which even disallow instrumental music.

Thirdly, the Ziaul Haq years created a generation which does not care for music, though western musical forms are now getting popular amongst the youth. So it is our cultural heritage which is in danger while ephemeral musical forms, especially those which are borrowed from the West, are flourishing. In any case, classical music requires a greater attention span and maturity of taste.

Umair plans to introduce classical music to schools so that children can at least listen to it. He also wants a big socio-economic database of all surviving artists so as to support their art. He went to Sadiqabad, Kashmore, Jafarabad and other flood-affected areas in 2010 and helped artists. He even bought shoes and chadars from artisans to help them reconstruct their houses or get their daughters married off.

And he has heart-rending tales of whole communities leaving their ancestral professions. For instance the Mohana community in Sindh, which was very fond of singing and dancing, has left it not only because there is no money in it but also because preachers have told them it is sinful to be an artist.

The IPAC may succeed or not — one-person endeavours are always fragile — but if we want to give our young people some pride in their cultural roots, in their centuries-old identity, in their non-violent traditions, then this is the idea we must cherish and promote. It may not be an effective antidote to extremism but it is a first step towards rebuilding a tolerant Pakistan. And in the process it may even give us something of a positive image — something we desperately need!

Published in The Express Tribune, July 10th, 2011.

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Reader Comments (14)

  • Max
    Jul 10, 2011 - 12:08AM

    Thanks, a big thanks to Umair Jafar for preserving rather reviving our cultural heritage despite his busy schedule in the corporate world.
    Also thanks to you (Dr Tariq Rehman) for bringing this information to us. Oh please! Do not mention Zia, or his zeal to politicize the religion for personal gains. We are paying the price for his misdeeds and will keep doing so for a long time to come.

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  • Feroz I. Khan
    Jul 10, 2011 - 1:29AM

    Great Job Umair. Keep it up. Wish I was there in the baithak.

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  • MKD
    Jul 10, 2011 - 2:32AM

    I notice somewhere in this article the author mentions Indo-Gangetic valleys. It should be Pak-Gangetic valleys.
    Just joking.
    A great read Dr.Tariq, thanks a lot. I particularly thank you for mentioning the Dhrupad style of singing which is a dying art in the sub-continent and the difference between a tabla and a pakhawaj.It is heartening to know that people from as far a place like Holland is contributing in it’s preservence.
    Thanks again for keeping us informed.

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  • SKChadha
    Jul 10, 2011 - 9:44AM

    For our readers, following are the links of our shared culture through rich music of our motherland in absolute and fusion formet with west:

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YvKsrqCwyGQ – Manganiyar Seduction

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86XJk_Ca6Jg&feature=related – Kartal

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vnFfgyk19vg&feature=related – Music in Fusion

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=maWdDRRJ2sg&feature=related – The music in fusion reaching to God

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  • YN
    Jul 10, 2011 - 11:55AM

    Chang (Jew’s harp-no connection with Jews or Jews’ lobby) is not a typical musical instrument of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa but is found and played almost all over the world. Ijaz Sarhadi plays Sarinda, His father Ustad Munir Sarhadi and grandfather, Ustad Dilpazir Sarhadi also used to play Sarinda, a typical bow instrument of K-P.

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  • Umair Jaffar
    Jul 10, 2011 - 6:31PM

    @SKChadha: Thank you very much for sharing such interesting links. Sadly the Manganiar community this side of the border has lost most of its rich cultural heritage.

    @YN: You are very right, thank you for the correction. It seems that the author got the names mixed up.

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  • Jul 10, 2011 - 10:55PM

    For those of you who are interested to know more about IPAC . Our web address is http://www.ipac.com.pk the website is very basic but it will still give you an idea of our work. More updated information is available on our facebook page https://www.facebook.com/ipac.pakistan

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  • Vidyadhar Shastri
    Jul 11, 2011 - 12:42AM

    It is not ‘Dhurpad’. It is Dhrupad.
    Dhur-pad, the way the article spells it, means = Dhur (BAD/UGLY) + Pad (Words).
    Dhru-pad, the proper spelling, means = Dhruva (Fixed) + Pad (Words)
    And it is rooted in Vedic Sanskrit intonation of hymns to God.
    However it evolved considerably since the 12th century onwards,
    to become a recognised North Indian / Hindustani classical form.
    It was under the influence of Swami Haridas who taught Tansen / Ramtanu Pandey,
    and its eventual transmission to Akbar‘s / Mughal court soirees,
    that Dhrupad came to the wider attention of the ruling elite.
    But that elite, unlike the elite today, was in touch with its roots.

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  • Haris Aqil
    Jul 11, 2011 - 1:17PM

    A very informative article. I was not aware of Dr, Tariq’s this dimension having knowledge about our musical instruments. A very good idea of reviving and promoting our cultural values and music which the young as well as the old are hardly familiar with.

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  • Raj
    Jul 12, 2011 - 7:24AM

    Article and comments are treat for my knowledge. Thanks ET.

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  • Rifaat
    Jul 12, 2011 - 8:52PM

    Moderators:
    Please correct Dhur-pad to Dhrupad (its proper spelling), as called out by the poster,
    Mr. Vidyadhar Shastri above. Thank you. Mr. Shastri.

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  • Amjad Noorani (San Francisco)
    Jul 12, 2011 - 11:44PM

    Living in the SF Bay Area of California is akin to being in the paradise of [Indo-Pak] classical music for its wealth of S. Asian culture, teachers, performers and appreciative audiences. Umair’s great efforts to salvage culture and ‘true’ music in Pakistan is laudable and one hopes this is not another case of too little, too late. Wonder what Umair thinks of the programs of National Academy of Performing Arts (NAPA) and individual efforts such as Safiya Beg’s (Sampuran) in Karachi.

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  • Jul 21, 2011 - 12:38AM

    @Amjad Noorani (San Francisco): There are several organizations all over Pakistan which are doing a great job for the promotion of performing arts. But I feel that the dilemma with most of them is that there is an aging group of patrons who are keeping these organizations alive. This group of patrons is slowly phasing out which will result in a sharp decline in the demand for traditional art forms. I feel that there is a need to fill this vacuum before it is too late.

    Therefore, we at IPAC are targeting the younger generations and giving them the opportunity to at least be aware of their rich cultural heritage. Now this is easier said than done because we really need to convey the information in the most user friendly manner. This means for instance that we need to teach them about the basic principles of classical music without once using any technical jargons. The aim is to reintroduce the art forms that are now alien to the Pakistanis themselves. We are currently doing that with a series of classical instrumental events in Islamabad where we are engaging the audiences and in simplest terms teaching them some of the fundamental concepts of classical music.

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  • Aug 8, 2011 - 4:50PM

    @ Vidyadhar Shastri: In all Urdu books on Music, for example Maarifun Naghmat, the words is spelt so that it reads Dhurpad. Similarly many other technical words are pronounced somewhat differently in Urdu.

    In Pakistan, we have at least two practitioners of Dhurpad, both of them relatively young: Aliya Rasheed and Ayesha Nadir Ali.

    Aliya is a student of the Dagar tradition and Ayesha of Talwandi . They can also talk eloquently about their art.

    Regarding classical music, it can never be popular- just as classical literature or poetry can never be popular. One has to invest a great deal of time in reading or listening to separate the mundane from the sublime.But a critical number of listeners is essential for our raag-dari music to stay alive.

    Why our raag dari music does not connect with new listeners is that, over the years, it has become degenerate, in the sense that many practitioners have lost a sense of balance between technique and aesthetics. They get carried away in emphasizing what is difficult , at the cost of aesthetics.Organisations like Kuch Khaas can help the practitioners by telling them politely, perhaps in a written note ,what they find objectionable in a performance and what aspects need to be emphasized .

    A seminar like environment is exactly what is needed to restore this music to its rightful place in our culture.

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