Why job creation alone isn't going to save Pakistan

Jobs might be one solution, but Pakistan needs to battle feudalism and strengthen community building to recover.

Bryan Farris December 25, 2010
Pakistan is a land of opportunity, but also has many needs.  It is critical to create jobs in this country, but it would be an error to believe that jobs alone will solve the issue of poverty.

An article from Business Week titled, “A silver lining in Pakistan’s floods” states that “this natural disaster may have given the country an opportunity to tackle a recurring point of contention in Pakistan—feudalism.”

The author states that aid money going to Pakistan should focus on job-creation strategies in addition to housing. She argues that the provision of jobs in relief work and an emphasis on business training would pave the way for the end of Pakistan’s feudal system and sustained improvements for the country’s poorest.

Though I appreciate the optimism, I respectfully disagree with the author; Pakistan is akin to a rose bush nurtured inside of a closed box. Watering the plant (creating jobs) is necessary and will help it grow. Yet, for the flower to really flourish one must add fertiliser, open up the box, and allow sunlight to flow in freely; only then will the rose reach its full height and blossom unfettered.

A holistic approach is necessary; there are five key reasons why jobs alone are not enough:

1. Feudalism is an entrenched system

Corruption is rampant in Pakistan and those with power and money have the ability to run the country. Feudalism has existed in Pakistan since its inception and at times has been reinforced by politicians in need of a vote.

In his book, “Pakistan: Eye of the storm”, Owen Bennet Jones describes how feudal lords have either ordered or tricked their subjects into voting a certain way.  Thus, democratically elected politicians tend to be respectful of the feudal lords.

Short-term jobs may help subjects break their dependency from their feudal lord on a temporary basis, but the reliance is so entrenched that it will take more than a job to instill lasting change.

In fact, in feudal areas, law tends to be nonexistent; instead lords are often consulted for judgment regarding civil disputes.  Thus, dependency is so great that it is linked to law and order; eliminating the feudal system too quickly would likely lead to chaos.

2. Homes provide more than just a roof

Don’t underestimate the power of homes in and of themselves.  One of the key pitfalls of feudalism is that the residents don’t own their own land.

Through flood relief efforts and subsequent housing projects, it is possible to empower residents by providing access to clear title.

As described in the book “Mystery of capital” by Hernando de Soto, one of the primary reasons the poor across the world cannot build assets is that their homes and businesses exist only in the extralegal sector.

Owners of homes can use their title as collateral for raising debt.  Additionally, access to a title defends an owner’s rights to improvements made on their property. As a result, the risk of investing in one’s land and farms is significantly reduced because ownership cannot be retracted.

The informal (extralegal) sector is quite widespread and currently many people hold assets that they cannot legally prove to be their own.  Overcoming the immense litigation challenge of incorporating informal arrangements into the formal sector will be required.

Providing housing with a clear title is a start.

3. Sustained improvements are impossible without education

Wikipedia ranks Pakistan as the 18th least literate country in the world with a 54% per cent literacy rate. It goes without saying that education is essential to the growth of any economy.

The feudal areas probably boast an even lower rate. It’s no surprise that parents prioritise education for their children so highly. It is for this reason that Greg Mortenson’s schools are so critical.

However, much more effort is required to make a difference—in particular to keep the poor from turning to terrorism. No business training program can make up for the lack of proper basic education in the country.

4. Pakistan needs community building

One benefit of feudal systems is that they provide residents with a sense of order (not to be confused with certainty).  Residents do not need to feel accountable for their land because the feudal lord is responsible for that.

Pakistanis need to take ownership over communal spaces to maintain order and cleanliness. Community development efforts are required to enable a transition to go smoothly and to empower residents to participate in their community’s decision making and maintenance.

Currently, my work in Lahore is with Ansaar Management Company, an organisation that prioritises community development.

5. Immediate aid required

Granted, the long term view is crucial, but right now Pakistan also has so many immediate needs that cannot be ignored.

The international community has largely forgotten about Pakistan and, given the floods unfortunate chronological proximity to the earthquake in Haiti, and donor-fatigue is at a high.  The real tragedy however, is that the domestic community has also moved on.

Worst of all, as Aid Watch reported, significant amounts of aid from the US to Haiti went to US contractors rather than local businesses.  The same exact issue has been observed in Pakistan.

Right now, aid is still needed to help the flood victims.  Before we start asking for the next round of aid to create job programs, money needs to be spent on redevelopment.  As a bonus, it wouldn’t hurt if that money went to Pakistani companies instead of going to foreign contractors.

The bottom line

Let’s be realistic; apart from creating conversations about how to help Pakistan, the floods did very little to help the poor. What is needed is long term, sustained investment in several areas. If anything, the floods diverted resources to address the immediate need.

Business Week is right that jobs need to be created.  A rose does need water.  But, there is much more that needs to be accomplished and it should be stressed that the answer is not simple.  The restrictions imposed on the rose by the closed box need to be removed and sunlight allowed in. Pakistan is a beautiful country full of wonderful people - let’s not let them down.

We should re-double our efforts but not expect an overnight solution.  Even under perfect conditions, it takes time and maintenance for a budding beauty to flourish.

Unrealistic expectations are dangerous. Should they fail to materialise, we risk sustained disillusionment with the state of Pakistan.

The original post was published here.
Bryan Farris An Acumen Fund fellow in the class of 2011 who blogs at RisingPyramid.org.Bryan currently works at Ansaar Management Company in Lahore.
The views expressed by the writer and the reader comments do not necassarily reflect the views and policies of the Express Tribune.


Najib Khan | 13 years ago | Reply Very rightly said & assessed that Pakistan is a land of opportunities but history proves that this land has been royally & mercilessly robbed & ripped of its resources, its wealth & its assets by all in sundry in the last 63 years of its existence. We cannot blame anyone in particular & walk away from the reality that I am or was not responsible for this plight of our country , of its current condition. All from the top echelons to the grass root level have made their due contribution in getting the country to this position where it stands today in the comity of the nations. I have lived & worked abroad & have seen & felt the difference that how the educated, cultured & socially behaved societies & nations live in a manner which is a far cry in Pakistan. Our problems as a decent society are many folded & we need to focus on the following areas in particular : -- Basic manners : Our decency levels are touching their lowest ebb while behaving in general public areas while dealing with elders, with children , with ladies , with neighbours , with friends, with co students , with peers , with colleagues , with family members , with wives , with parents etc. -- Tolerance : we have forgotten the golden principle of forgiveness , exoneration & pardoning off , go have a look at our traffic on our roads & you would realize the level of tolerance existing in our society.We take take pride in snubbing & insulting others for petty & ignorable faults of others , leave no chance or opportunity or room to forgive others knowing the fact that it is humans which err not machines. We do not learn from our mistakes , whereas the mistakes errors, faults are in turn opportunities to further improve on any particular skill or area , they teach us to even get better. -- Education : With deepest regrets & sorrow this cornerstone sector of our society which serves at the backbone of any progressing country has been turned into a money making biz which only serves to the elite of the society , thus depriving of the poor to their basic right to get empowered with the weapon of pen & paper. Quality education is one important area which needs a complete overhauling & revamping on the grass root level. This should be taken up on a war footing enabling our talent to go out & compete in the global job market & excel in all the fields of life , be it business , be it science & technology or whatever. Emphasis in policy making should be laid on strengthening of the very foundations of our education system on a missionary basis . Govt spending in this sector should increase , a minimum of 10,000 teachers / professors should be hired from English speaking countries like UK, USA , Canada , New Zealand , Australia, with an objective to develop the base of spoken & written English in our common masses. These people must be hired with attractive tax free salaries & perks with a target that they no only have to impart the knowledge of English language to our students reading in primary , secondary & higher levels but also should at the same time train & groom our teachers & professors in the proficiency of this language. Having seen Indian workforce in great demand in the middle east job market & elsewhere in the world , the only reason that makes sense to me for this demand of theirs is their solid base in education & vis a vis English proficiency. Whereas looking at the reality in our case , no doubt our educational institutions are producing so called BA's , MA's , MBA's & various other masters & graduates from our current educational set up, but in terms of their quality they are not to be fit for the modern day biz , official & employer requirements. We are neither getting the quantity , nor the quality from our current educational system & set up. CURE TO ABOVE PERILS : We may not need to look else where , we have two beacons of lights to guide us to come out of the apathy & these are the following : -- Following the Role Model life of Prophet Mohammed SAW. -- Following the teachings of Quran. I would suggest Mr. Bryan also to go through the English translations of the life our beloved Prophet Mohamed ( Peace be upon Him ) & that of his beloved companions & he will get to know that in practice what is being followed in west today was the behaviour & the life of our Prophet and his companions 1400 years ago. If he will study the English version of Quran alongside above life accounts as well he will get to understand what actually ought to be the meaning of a Muslim should be as compared to the Muslims of today with no character at all. Today we have so called Muslims in Muslim world , but no true spirit of Islam , that spirit has died in us long ago, in true sense I have to admit to my fellow countrymen that in modern times if they really want to witness Islam in its true colour & spirit they should visit west , those guys need only need to recite KALIMA , otherwise they behave & live as a true Muslim should.
Jackass | 13 years ago | Reply I guess the bad is no longer limited to the Feudal....You can see thousands of industrialists... Land reforms should be welcomed but there should also be some reforms regarding industrial riches.
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