In three years, Pakistan has taken on $25b in fresh loans

Published: October 20, 2016
Loan profile presented by DG debt office shows govt has also borrowed  Rs3.1 trillion from domestic markets. PHOTO: REUTERS

Loan profile presented by DG debt office shows govt has also borrowed Rs3.1 trillion from domestic markets. PHOTO: REUTERS

ISLAMABAD: In its three-year stint, the PML-N government has obtained $25 billion as fresh foreign loans in addition to borrowing Rs3.1 trillion ($30 billion) from the domestic market for budget financing, said Ehtesham Rashid, Director General of the Debt Office at the Ministry of Finance Wednesday.

In dollar terms, the government’s total domestic and foreign borrowings amounted to $55 billion during the last three years. However, the impact of domestic borrowing is not as adverse as that of foreign borrowings due to the liberty of printing rupee amid inflation that remains under control.

Pakistan’s debt pile soars to Rs22.5tr

Out of the $25 billion in foreign loans the government has obtained from June 2013 to June 2016, an amount of $11.95 billion was spent in repayment of previous loans, said Rashid.

Briefing the Senate Standing Committee on Finance over the state of the country’s indebtedness, he said that net addition in external debt during the last three years has been $13 billion. The debt profile the DG presented in the committee showed that both domestic and external debt was growing alarmingly at double-digit pace.

There was a net addition of $5.6 billion in the country’s external debt during the last fiscal year 2015-16, showing a growth of 28.2% over the increase in foreign debt in 2014-15, according to the Finance Ministry. Similarly, in 2014-15, the net increase in debt was $4.42 billion, higher by 53% over the increase reported in the preceding year. During the last three years, the government paid $2.74 billion in interest on foreign loans.

Out of $25 billion foreign loans, an amount of $1.85 billion was borrowed from commercial banks without competitive bidding, raising transparency concerns. While citing the work done by Dr Ashfaque Hasan Khan, Senator Saleem Mandviwalla, Chairman Standing Committee, questioned that whether the Finance Ministry was secretly borrowing from foreign sources.

Pakistan’s way out of the debt crisis

However, the debt office DG maintained that the government was not secretly borrowing from abroad.

Pakistan’s debt woes

A recent report by the International Monetary Fund  (IMF) revealed that Pakistan’s external debt was primarily increasing because of the government’s inability to enhance exports and attract foreign direct investment.

The much-touted ‘highest-ever’ foreign currency reserves have largely been built by obtaining expensive foreign loans, which according to independent economists is not a sustainable way to increase reserves.

The government borrowed $3.5 billion by issuing bonds in the international debt markets during the last three years, excluding the last Sukuk bond worth $1 billion that was issued this month. It obtained $9.7 billion in loans from multilateral banks including the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and Islamic Development Bank and $3.6 billion from bilateral countries. An amount of $6.2 billion of the IMF borrowings was also part of fresh debt.

Domestic borrowing

The situation on the domestic front is also not different. Rashid said that during last three years, the government obtained Rs3.114 trillion in fresh loans.

Pakistan’s total debt and liabilities stood at Rs22.4 trillion as of June this year, according to the State Bank of Pakistan.

The Finance Ministry maintained that it would be incorrect to consider domestic debt maturing in the near future as posing any risk of default since the sovereign owes these debts in local currencies. It added that the total interest payment on the domestic debt as percentage of GDP was “moderate at around 4%”.

‘Pakistan headed towards another IMF bailout’

However, in absolute terms, debt servicing cost has been high, standing at Rs3.43 trillion during the last three years. The amount was higher than what the government borrowed from domestic sources during the past three years. To a question, the debt office official said that as of June this year the debt-to-GDP ratio was 66.5%.

In June, the government made a clever move to avert criticism against growing public debt. It amended Fiscal Responsibility and Debt Limitation Act of 2005 through Finance Act aimed at changing the goalposts to hide its inefficiencies.

The Finance Ministry not only diluted the law but also got relaxed the statutory limit of restricting the public debt at 60% of GDP.

Both the PPP and the PML-N governments had been in violation of this condition. Now, the government has set a new statutory deadline of June 2018 to bring the debt to 60% of GDP level as against the earlier deadline of June 2013.

Published in The Express Tribune, October 19th, 2016.

Like Business on Facebook, follow @TribuneBiz on Twitter to stay informed and join in the conversation.

Facebook Conversations

Reader Comments (17)

  • AD
    Oct 20, 2016 - 6:14AM

    The country has highest reserves ever, GDP growth is 4.2% and going to become 5%.
    All this with decrease in exports and remittances.
    Its a miracle, No wonder FM got an an award of FM of the year.
    Keep calm game changer CPEC is also here Recommend

  • Zulfiqar
    Oct 20, 2016 - 8:57AM

    Who will pay back these loans, and answer is we Pakistani people and not these political elite class.Recommend

  • Rehmat Ali
    Oct 20, 2016 - 9:16AM

    People of Punjab and Sindh will keep voting PML N and PPP. And whole country will suffer for next 5 years.This cycle is going on since decades. Current political electoral system totally failed in Pakistan.Same people get elected again and again.All Departments works under their influence.So no chance of fair accountability.Recommend

  • ABC
    Oct 20, 2016 - 9:29AM

    Highest reserves through loans. Although loans of $25b were taken but reserves are not even the same amount. Also the award of FM of the year was fake, the news broke out and you still dont know? Recommend

  • Asif
    Oct 20, 2016 - 9:42AM

    Don’t worry be Happy CPEC will solve everything and we will surpass US economy in 2018 so please relect me ……says PMRecommend

    Oct 20, 2016 - 9:49AM

    CPEC will change everything in Pakistan……However the GREED FOR CORRUPTION cannot be cured by CPEC……….Recommend

  • mastishhk
    Oct 20, 2016 - 10:47AM

    Congratulations Pakistan..You have gone from neckdeep to nosedeep in debt. Recommend

  • ChandSitara
    Oct 20, 2016 - 10:50AM

    Thats one way to enslave a nation to globalist! Soon we will suffer the same faith as Greece. Instead of establishment our Tax amount is now used to pay Loans.Recommend

  • Zia Abro
    Oct 20, 2016 - 10:52AM

    This is scary; I hope FM has a game plan.
    The basic issue in Pakistan is absolutely dysfunctional tax administration and the resultant low direct tax collection.Unless the FM recognizes this problem and reforms the tax administration (FBR) the country will face serious cash flow problemRecommend

  • Pakistani
    Oct 20, 2016 - 11:14AM


  • Muhammad
    Oct 20, 2016 - 11:17AM

    Remind me who brought Nawaz Sharif and Asif Zardari back from exile into Pakistan? Oh a weekend military dictator decided to allow these corrupt politicians back in Pakistan through NRO to lengthen his rule!

    Now the same military dictator is waiting for his own term to come and rule Pakistan again.

    Great! Pakistan deserves this!Recommend

  • Pakistani
    Oct 20, 2016 - 11:24AM

    There is a subject by the name of Economics which can help you understand the true condition of our economy.

    As far as the award is concerned, read this

  • FAZ
    Oct 20, 2016 - 12:16PM

    I think Indian media is banned now in Pakistan. You still accessing it somehow Recommend

  • Raheel Butt
    Oct 20, 2016 - 12:21PM

    external debt growth, falling exports ,rising imports , over valued rupee and likely event of interest rates increase by US Fed . the previous precedents suggest right after the goverement changes hand in 2018 there is higher probability of rupee depreciating 15-20%Recommend

  • Faisal
    Oct 20, 2016 - 2:12PM

    Please read this then provide your conclusion:

    Out of the $25 billion in foreign loans the government has obtained from June 2013 to June 2016, an amount of $11.95 billionRecommend

  • Irshad Khan
    Oct 20, 2016 - 5:52PM

    Beside paying back 25 billion loan with high interest rate is any one keeping track of all this big money. Is this Menes ending in foreign bank accounts or it is used to buy properties in London and Dubai.Recommend

  • Mayor
    Oct 20, 2016 - 7:39PM

    India has voting rights in IMF, I hope they never vote against giving loans to Pakistan. India should always vote yes, yes, yes to more loans for Pakistan. Give them another $20 billion, let them build more nukes. If Pakistan defaults on IMF loans it knows the consequences. Recommend

More in Business