9th century Viking woman discovered with ring that says 'for Allah'

Published: March 19, 2015
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The ring made over 1,000 years ago has confirmed contact between the Vikings and the Islamic world because it was unearthed in Sweden but bears an ancient Arabic inscription that asys 'for Allah' or 'to Allah'. PHOTO COURTESY: THE SWEDISH HISTORY MUSEUM

The ring made over 1,000 years ago has confirmed contact between the Vikings and the Islamic world because it was unearthed in Sweden but bears an ancient Arabic inscription that asys 'for Allah' or 'to Allah'. PHOTO COURTESY: THE SWEDISH HISTORY MUSEUM

Sweden’s has had a strained relationship with the Arab world over the past few weeks, after the Scandinavian country came under a war of words with Saudi Arabia over human rights. 

But an engraved ring excavated from a ninth-century grave in the Viking trading centre of Birka, Sweden, suggests that friendlier ties existed between modern Sweden’s forefathers and the Islamic civilisations.

The woman in the grave died in 9th century and was discovered around a thousand years later by the famous Swedish archaeologist Hjalmar Stolpe, who spent years excavating the grave sites around Birka.

Made of silver alloy, the ring contained a stone with an inscription written in the Kufic Arabic script widely used between the 8th and 10th centuries. “For/to Allah,” the inscription read. It was the only known Viking Age ring with an Arabic inscription to be found in the entire of Scandinavia. Exactly how the woman got the ring wasn’t clear – she was found wearing typical Scandinavian dress, so presumably the ring arrived through trade.

Now, new research from biophysicist Sebastian Wärmländer of Stockholm University and his colleagues has confirmed exactly how unique the ring was. In the journal Scanning, the researchers recount how they used a scanning electron microscope to investigate the origins of the ring. Notably, they discovered that the stone in the ring is actually coloured glass – at the time an exotic material for the Vikings, though it had been made for thousands of years in the Middle East and North Africa.

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Even more notably, the ring displayed a remarkable lack of wear, leading the authors to speculate that it had few – if any – owners in-between its creator and its Viking owner. Instead, Wärmländer and his colleagues suggest, it appears to show direct contact between Viking society and the Abbasid Caliphate that dominated much of the Middle East and North Africa.

The authors write, “it is not impossible that the woman herself, or someone close to her, might have visited — or even originate from — the Caliphate or its surrounding regions.”

While physical evidence of it is unusual, there have been plenty of accounts of Scandinavians from this period crossing paths with the early Muslim world. By the 11th century Vikings had become known for their lengthy sea voyages, journeying as far west as the Americas and likely reaching Constantinople and even Baghdad when they travelled the other way. And while contemporary accounts of Vikings from Western Europe suggests terrifying invaders, most accounts suggest the Vikings, likely fearful of the more sophisticated warriors in the region, instead looked for trade when they went east.

“The Vikings were very interested in silver, not so much in gold,” Farhat Hussain, a historian, told the National newspaper of Abu Dhabi in 2008.

“It was a status symbol for Viking men and women; they even wanted to be buried with silver.”

The boss from the Viking shield was recently found to contain Islamic coins in a leather purse. PHOTO COURTESY: DAILY MAIL

Still, the Scandinavians did raise doubts over their journeys. In an otherwise complimentary description of people now believed to be Vikings, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, an emissary of the Abbasid Caliph, wasn’t so sure about their hygiene.

“They are the filthiest of all Allah’s creatures,” the Arab writer wrote in the 10th century. “They do not purify themselves after excreting or urinating or wash themselves when in a state of ritual impurity after coitus and do not even wash their hands after food.”

Exactly how the woman in Birka and the ring fit into this relationship isn’t known. It may never be known.

“I don’t know if it was bought or looted and of course I wish I could know how it all came about that this woman got it – friendly or otherwise. If she went far from home or if someone brought it back for her?” Linda Wåhlander, a teacher at the Statens historiska museum who worked on the project, explained in an e-mail. “I am an archaeologist but I sometimes wish I was a timetraveller.”

The article originally appeared in The Washington Post

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Reader Comments (5)

  • Deb El Ouiaazzani
    Mar 19, 2015 - 7:03PM

    It’s incredible to have a ring with God’s name on it so far from home. If she was Arab-Muslim, it would be a good daily reminder to keep her faith. If they found the bones of the woman, though, couldn’t they tell what ethnicity she was of?
    I was also under the misconception that they favored gold like the Germanic tribes.
    As to the 10th century Arab who noted lack of hygiene. I believe the Arabs were the first to practice it given the instructions of woo doo-ritual purification for prayer. When you pray five times a day and must do woo doo prior to each prayer almost, you become very clean.
    And as to the jewelry itself. Cleaned up, you would not be able to distinguish it from modern pieces. Recommend

  • Danyal Chambers
    Mar 19, 2015 - 10:02PM

    Farhat Hussain (a leading academic) who is cited in this article has written a 3 volume series detailing the links that existed between the Vikings and the Islamic World. This is based upon research that span over 10 years. To learn more about these links please read his works titled “The Vikings and The Islamic World” available to read from amazon.Recommend

  • Yusuf
    Mar 19, 2015 - 10:02PM

    13th Warrior. Recommend

  • straightshooter
    Mar 20, 2015 - 12:48AM

    @Yusuf:
    Yeah. Ahmad ibn Fadlan was a traveller to the Vikings. Senor Banderas went much later.Recommend

  • Saira Khan
    Mar 20, 2015 - 12:52AM

    @Danyal Chambers:
    Thanks for sharing that, I’ve had a glimpse. Seems that there was a lot of activity back then. Recommend

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