Milk factory: From the farmer to your door — the supply chain

Published: April 28, 2014
At the corporate farm, the milking was done mechanically. From the animal’s udders to the finished product, the raw milk remains unexposed to the environment – courtesy the suction pumps directly connected to the chillers. PHOTO: FAROOQ BALOCH/EXPRESS

At the corporate farm, the milking was done mechanically. From the animal’s udders to the finished product, the raw milk remains unexposed to the environment – courtesy the suction pumps directly connected to the chillers. PHOTO: FAROOQ BALOCH/EXPRESS


The unhygienic environment that loose or unprocessed milk is exposed to is no secret to the Pakistani consumer.

Loose milk has a market share of over 90% but there is no way to check its quality. One cannot be sure because the informal sector does not conduct any quality control tests.

What is even more interesting is the fact that, despite its substandard supply chain, the informal milk still remains the first choice for a vast majority. Most consumers think that bacteria and harmful substances present in loose milk are killed once it is boiled.

Secondly, there is a lot of uncertainty – among consumers – about the processing and quality of branded or formal milk which is the only alternative.

The formal milk sector – Nestle Pakistan, Engro Foods, Haleeb Foods and Anhaar to name a few players – refers mainly to the following: milk processed through Ultra-High Temperature (UHT), powdered milk and pasteurised milk.

This report, however, is an exclusive attempt to focus on the supply chain of UHT milk, the largest segment of fresh milk in the formal sector. To witness the UHT milk supply chain, dairy, traditional and corporate farms were visited. Work at milk collection centres at the village level; a main collection centre at the district level and a milk processing plant was also observed.

The process starts early morning. Small farmers, the largest producers in the country, do the milking at their farms (homes in many cases) by hand and immediately bring the raw milk at the collection centre of their village – Said Pur in this case.

A collection agent takes the sample from each farmer and conducts basic quality tests to check if the milk is acceptable. If cleared, it is poured into a chiller – hygienically cleaned beforehand – and stored below 6˚C.

This is the collection method for small farmers.

The corporate farm was run in line with international best practices. At these farms, the milking was done mechanically, from the animal’s udders to the finished product the raw milk remains unexposed to the environment – courtesy the suction pumps directly connected to the chillers.

Once stored, the raw milk is not exposed to the environment at any stage of the supply chain.

These chillers then piped the milk into tankers that are also equipped with chillers. The milk is brought to the district’s main centre. A sample is taken and more rigorous quality tests are performed – this time in state-of-the-art scientific labs. The main centre visited was located in Kangan Pur (Kasur District) and owned by Nestle.

After quality clearance, the tankers leave for the company’s processing plant – the Sheikhupura processing factory visited was owned by Nestle.

Every tanker arriving at the factory is first cleaned to prevent any dust particles, germs or bacteria it might have carried along from entering the premises. A sample is taken once again at the factory’s main collection point.

They conduct quality tests at every step of the supply chain to make sure the raw milk didn’t spoil since the last station. Though equipped with chillers, many tankers have to cover long distances to reach the factory, which could spoil the milk – a few months ago the company had drained 125 liters of raw milk spoiled on the way due to a massive traffic jam, an official said during the demonstration process.

If the quality is acceptable, the milk is offloaded directly into the factory’s chillers where processing starts. At the factory, several quality tests are performed by the company’s scientists and technicians.

The UHT processing

While being processed, the raw milk flows through heat exchangers consisting of metal plates or tubes and there is no direct contact between the food and the heating medium steam. During the first step, the milk is pasteurised, which kills pathogens, the disease causing bacteria. They then perform de-aeration to ensure no air bubbles are left in the milk.

The raw milk is now processed for UHT treatment – it is heated at 135˚C or higher for about four seconds. The next step is fat balancing or homogenisation that brings fat particles of milk body to the same level — 3.5% fats.

After being processed, the product is called standardised milk – that is every drop of milk contains the same level of fat. All of this happens at such a high speed that the entire cycle, from the farmer to the finished product, is completed in less than a day.

This standardised milk is then filled in aseptic packaging – of Tetra Pak – through automatic plants and sealed in the form of containers found in grocery stores.

Published in The Express Tribune, April 28th, 2014.

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Reader Comments (9)

  • Hafeez
    Apr 28, 2014 - 10:39AM

    Very “enlightening” but the writer perhaps forgot to shed some light on the few things like….what kind of powder is mixed to tone it to 3.5% fat? what kind of industrial chemicals are added to “improve the vitamins/minerals count”? What preservatives enhance the shelf-life of milk containers for about 2 months? As i wonder If same standards are maintained in all companies/plants how come Anhar expires in 4 days in refrigerator whereas MilkPak lasts longer without refrigeration?……and the list of questions goes on.

    ET please check the quality of material you publish. Don’t just endorse Nestle products.


  • Lol
    Apr 28, 2014 - 10:44AM

    Nice adverticle oops article


  • Taseer Ali
    Apr 28, 2014 - 12:17PM

    What was this article about? Are you campaigning for Nestle Safe Milk??.. What a sigh.

    You should also bother telling your readers, how UHT process not only kills bacteria but all nutritional elements in milk. In the end, it’s just flavour without essence. In developed countries HTST process is implemented to avoid this. Even Amul in India follows it!

    I am myself a household user, and performed exhausting research to find out that Prema and Anhaar are two options, If i need to milk, not some milk-like-product.


  • Humza
    Apr 28, 2014 - 1:28PM

    Please look into aseptic technologies, UHT and pasteurizing processes to understand your queries.


  • Hafeez
    Apr 28, 2014 - 4:21PM


    I did, but that doesn’t answer my queries. Making the packaging Air/Light/Moisture proof does not increase shelf-life. Milk and any other perishable product cannot be stored for a longer period without preservatives. Prema / Milk-Ville pack their milk in the same containers (Air/Light/Moisture proof packing) but milk expires within 3-4 days.


  • Parvez
    Apr 28, 2014 - 11:55PM

    As milk is a Pakistani product, its cost to go from Rs 35 / liter to Rs 90 / liter is inexcusable and a small plastic cup of yogurt from Rs 35 to rs 80 in an even much shorter time……..does greed have no bounds ?


  • A consumer
    Apr 29, 2014 - 12:05AM

    ET should have put across the versions from consumers’ side as well. Mere promoting nestle doesn’t suffice. What about putting urea, whay and hair removing powder etc to thicken the so called hygienic milk? Please read out the article published in the daily nation in year 2009. What about extracting fat contents from fresh milk to produce cheese, butter, powdered milk and yogurt?
    Consumers! Please avoid it as far as possible.


  • Apr 29, 2014 - 2:32AM

    thewy add formaline in that you can wikipedia that as well which is a dangerous thing for human body.


  • leee
    Apr 29, 2014 - 7:34AM

    I dont know how people believe by looking just a side of mirror. I live in a small town where they have their collection centre. What i saw with my own eyes is that they do add cheap oil or ghee whhatever it was in the tank before taking it to district station, this was to increase its fat contents as 5,6 kg of oil or ghee will increase fat content and they will get better money as they just test fat by dipping in the device and pay them with relative price. Another thing, some do add water in trasportation big tanks that reduces fat, then they add oil or ghee to neutralize water’s effect by increasing fat content. Its hard to believe how we are being fooled by these quality tests, when we are betrayed at the start of the process.


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