Even the ashes blown away

Published: April 24, 2014
The writer has served as faculty member at Brown University, University of Pennsylvania, LUMS, and is currently serving as Professor and Advisor to the Social Sciences and Liberal Arts Program at the Institute of Business Administration, Karachi

The writer has served as faculty member at Brown University, University of Pennsylvania, LUMS, and is currently serving as Professor and Advisor to the Social Sciences and Liberal Arts Program at the Institute of Business Administration, Karachi

Some years ago, in a newspaper piece, Sheldon Pollock had aptly quoted Bhartarihari, the great Indian poet who was so affectionately rendered into Urdu and Persian by Pakistan’s national poet, Muhammad Iqbal. “One shouldn’t wait until the house is burning to dig a well,” so said the Sanskrit elder, Pollock tells us. Pollock continues: “And the house of Indian classical language study is not only burning, it lies almost in ashes.” But only if he were to look at Pakistan — he will find the situation much worse, nay pitiable. In Pakistan, the house of all languages, not only classical languages, has all but burnt down; and more, even the ashes seem now to have been blown away, for the disaster is hardly talked about any more. The loss, almost total, has been effaced from the society’s memory by the terrifying movement of an obsession — the obsession with scientism; not science, let’s note, but scientism.

One does note that student enrollments in the Humanities are declining in many countries of the world including the US. But the dynamics of this phenomenon have their own peculiar features in Pakistan; and compared to the industrialised countries the consequences are, as far as I have understood, way more serious. To begin with, the decline here is in fact an educational policy target that was to be achieved. Thus, under Pakistan’s official Educational Policy of 1972-80, ‘engineering and technology’ were given the lion’s share of funding and attention. But what ought to be carved in our academic consciousness is that the policy at the same time spoke of discouraging the study of the Humanities.

This state of crisis has multiple faces. With three generations thrown into applied/vocational fields, and the killing of languages, the Pakistani society has been barred from an access to its primary textual sources. What is the result? Pakistanis cannot explain themselves. They have no knowhow any more to challenge the received narratives, not even to detect egregious factual errors in these narratives, errors that often appear to have been deliberately introduced, left unattended for so long now that they have hardened unyieldingly over time.

Here, there lives this ‘educated’ community of people that thinks in terms of forced conceptual categories, a people who have been, as a matter of state policy, deprived of the critical sight even to discern if their historical and cultural peculiarities admit of these categories. They have neither the language training nor the interest any more to examine their own intellectual legacy. There are literally towering heaps of Persian and Arabic manuscripts lying unread in various libraries of Pakistan as well as elsewhere all over the world — and what of Persian and Arabic manuscripts, Pakistanis typically do not even have the competence now to read printed books in Urdu.

One despairs: colonialism seems to have forever dislocated the Pakistanis epistemologically; they continue to live under conceptual coercion. True to its vision, we note with awe, the HEC has suppressed the Humanities effectively while nourishing ‘science and technology’. As I had pointed out at the very outset, this is not a scientific but a scientistic vision; it embodies a malady called scientism. What is scientism as opposed to science? It is a malady that has three types of interrelated essential symptoms: logical, epistemological and political. Logically, scientism presupposes that all disciplines of human knowledge, when sufficiently purified and developed, will reduce to the ‘hard’ sciences, such as physics or biology. This reductionism thereby denies any logical independence to the humanities. The second type of symptom of scientism is related to the first — it creates an epistemological hierarchy wherein the ‘hard’ sciences are found at the highest rungs and humanistic studies somewhere at the lowest. An art critic or a historian or a sociologist must emulate and strive to approximate as closely as possible biologists and physicists and astronomers — but not vice versa.

Then, there is the politics of scientism. It is this politics that leads to an obfuscation of the crucial distinction between science and technology. One far-reaching consequence of this politics is the elevated status given to those identified as ‘scientists’ — those who are, in fact, commercial industry-oriented applied scientists or, to put it bluntly, high order technicians. The cultural ecocide has manifested itself in massive casualties. There does not exist a single historian under the age of 80 now in Pakistan who can read Sanskrit — Sanskrit, perhaps is too much to ask for: in the country’s top institutions, those who teach Sufism do not read Persian and those whose specialty is the Pakistan Movement are smug with conversational Urdu. I have already stated the agonising fact about Sanskrit teaching — it was discontinued at Karachi University, a very large public institution of Pakistan’s metropolis. Given this, I wonder if there are any academics who talk about South Asia at this university who are aware what material exits in Sanskrit that might decisively add to what they know, or render problematic what they take for granted: nearly all Pakistani South Asianists build their edifice on the grounds of secondary literature written in English, literature that often does not even include translated primary sources.

Finally let me say a word about the pathological aspect of the crisis. Parents coerce their children to study ‘applied’ fields, such as accountancy, computer technology, or auto engineering. These kids, then, abhor what they do. So what do we get? A massive body of alienated youngsters, so many of them, terrorised by the corporate culture in which they were thrown against their wishes, while manifestly their inner being had a different thrust.

Note: This article is an edited excerpt from a paper presented at the Global Humanities Center of Columbia University

Published in The Express Tribune, April 25th, 2014.

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Reader Comments (13)

  • Sam
    Apr 25, 2014 - 2:29AM

    This article really touched my heart. I wish the governments of India & Pakistan start some reciprocal arrangements whereby students of the other country can come & study language & culture in the other country. Sanskrit is also Pakistan’s heritage and anyone who studies Sanskrit will be amazed to see not just the linkages with Urdu or Persian but also similarities to Latin & Greek. Any Pakistani up for the challenge can start here – “Introduction to Sanskrit” by Thomas Egenes.



  • Sridhar
    Apr 25, 2014 - 3:59AM

    Sheldon Pollock is dead wrong. Sanskrit as a language is making a comeback in India. The effort is being spearheaded by sanskrit bharati, an organization that has made it its motto to spread the “divine language” to the masses. They hold seminars, spoken sanskrit classes all over India and in US. 2 districts in India (one in MP, another in Karnataka) have been declared sanskrt literate.
    It is true that few take up this language for higher studies but that may change. There is tremendous interest in this language in the newer generation of Indians. I live in US and stayed with my wife in an ashram which had 2 resident ashramites, both women, both white americans (one from Germany) and both fluent in sanskrit.


  • Lunacyassailam
    Apr 25, 2014 - 6:56AM

    Sanskrit is not a Pakistani language, even though all languages from Pakistan to Europe originate in Sanskrit, and in India, the heartland of tribes..When did you hear that Khitte, Pitte, Patte, Watte and all sounding Gypsie language is somehow related to Abhishek, Suwarna, Sushantha or Bharat Ganarajya.The Muslims dont know their history, the Scythians were first Saka Pagans, devoted to Lord Shiva, making war and roaming around the Hindu Kush, till they settle in the Indus ,due to the exclusion of Bharat, because India calls truth truth, called the Scythians unclean, they became Pali Buddhists later to be conquered by Mughals and Arabs.Saka’s dont speak Sanskrit, who taught you this?.Its true the Rig Veda, alone was written on the Banks of the Indus, the Saraswati dried up 6000 years ago and the people left the barren land back to the motherland, thats why the Indo Gangetic plain is the most densely populated river system, even today.Sakas dont speak Sanskrit, Sakas speak Mleccha Bhasha, yeh, your Iranic,Urduic,Arabic,Punchapi mix.Gypsies.Dont worry about Sanskrit and other Indian classical languages existing in India…every day the temples recite it.


  • Apr 25, 2014 - 12:00PM

    Sanskrit, Yoga, Henna, Basant, Holi, Diwali, etc are colours of India, is India’s legacy.

    Since, Pakistan was formed on the basis of un-India, all things Indian are disappearing.

    Some liberal folks are fighting for Basant to be revived by saying its a Secular festival, but not too many are fooled.

    Pakistan did not become Pakistan overnight on Aug 14th 1947, from being India. It was a slow process. Slowly but surely, Pakistan’s cultural centre shifted from India to Arabia and the results are very visible.

    Pakistan is now a firm Islamic State, which resembles more Arabia than India. The transition is complete.


  • ABC
    Apr 25, 2014 - 12:07PM

    Great read! It is rare to come across articles on such issues. Unfortunately, no one even thinks these problems are the “real” issues.
    And it is not about whether Sanskrit is a Pakistani language or not. The need to study Sanskrit, or any other language, goes beyond what is Pakistani and what isn’t. And as far as the Pakistan connection goes, the study of Sanskrit can help problematise our concepts about Pakistan’s history and thus add nuance to our opinions on Pakistan’s present day challenges.


  • Feroz
    Apr 25, 2014 - 12:10PM

    I agree that study of Humanities is being bypassed everywhere. Coming to Sanskrit, no one is interested in becoming a Sanskrit scholar in India, where is the hope for it in Pakistan.


  • Spaced Out
    Apr 25, 2014 - 3:58PM

    I think this article got hijacked by the red herring of Sanskrit.

    The deeper point that author seeks to make is that by privileging Science & Tech education over humanities, Pakistan has deprived its people with the capacity to think for themselves. Science & Tech as taught in South Asia does not promote critical thinking and the lack of a humanities component accentuates this problem.

    This is why most South Asian engineers, even if they are from the much vaunted IIT’s, lack the capacity to be inventive and creative and really go beyond being, to quote the author – ‘high order technicians’.


  • art
    Apr 25, 2014 - 6:33PM

    “and what of Persian and Arabic manuscripts, Pakistanis typically do not even have the competence now to read printed books in Urdu” Excellent article!

    BTW it’s not about origins of Sanskrit, it’s about doomed education policy of this unfortunate piece of land.


  • gp65
    Apr 25, 2014 - 9:14PM

    @Feroz: Actually Sanskrit is making a comeback – not as a spoken language of course but as a classical language. There is a lot of instructional material available on youtube to allow people to self teach themselves Sanskrit. Many young people are availing the opportunity.Recommend

  • Milind
    Apr 26, 2014 - 12:53PM

    @Sridhar/gp65 – Even though Sanskrit is making a comeback, its far from being mainstream. However I agree, Sanskrit Bharati and other organizations are taking efforts in its revival.
    Add to that Sanskrit grammar, provides utility value as well in the applied fields



  • Sexton Blake
    Apr 26, 2014 - 7:19PM

    Several replies and the original article by Dr Haq were well written and interesting. However, in this fast changing technical world it is difficult to keep up just using English or the other top languages ( has anybody, like me, moved on to Windows 8? ). Latin has virtually gone into oblivion as have several other languages and this will continue for all practical purposes. I recall when I was a child, a very long time ago, that French was considered the top international language, but English has well and truly taken over. A young relative of mine, aged 14, from Germany is currently visiting, and apart from a slight accent speaks perfect English. Possibly in the not too distant future Hindi and or Chinese will become the dominant languages. However, I think gp65 put it well when he said that Sanskrit is making a comeback of sorts. Now that I have retired I am studying another language as are so many of my friends. I think that if Dr Haq carried out a poll he would be surprised at the number of people, albeit a relatively low percentage, who are interested in Sanskrit, Latin or other languages just for academic pleasure.


  • amir jafri
    Apr 26, 2014 - 9:00PM

    “Jala hai jism jahaan; dil bhee jal gaya hoga.
    Kuraidtay ho jo Ub raakh; justjoo kyaa hai?”

    Nauman sahib,

    aap sanskrit ko ro rahain hain; yahaan urdu ko laalay parRay huay hain…..There was a time when most of the sanskrit literature was, for the first time ever, translated into Hindvi ( that was what Urdu/Hindi was called then , before the British partitioned the language). The translators were all muslims …educated at the madressas.

    Muslims advanced and led the world when they translated from Greek and Latin. England, France, Germany, China ( and all others ..except colonized clones) have advanced by establishing translation bureaus..not by become toata-mainaas of alien tongues like us Indie-Pakis.

    Sanskrit and Hindis , like our Farsi and Arabie, have so much power and dimension in them that the Europen languges..being daughters and nieces of these languages have become three-dimensional vibrant and colorful because of this ancestory.

    But then , as the poet said:

    when we got “freedom” , we crossed all limits…
    ” shaadi hui, toa fart-i mussarat mein barRh gaey
    GhorRay ko laat maar ke sooli pe charRh gaey”


  • Tahir Ghani
    May 1, 2014 - 7:21PM

    Asians languages have lost importance in this Scientific and Technological Age. If some one learns Urdu,Sanskrit,Arabic or Persian. What is he going to do with them.People even hardly chose Humanities as career, so the death of these languages is bound to happen.Pakistanis do not know about Sanskrit because Pakistanis are not supposed to look beyond 712.AD. Same is the case with Urdu in India. English is going to be the first language of Sub continent soon.


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