Towards a knowledge economy

Published: November 30, 2012
The writer is former federal minister of science & technology and former chairman of the Higher Education Commission

The writer is former federal minister of science & technology and former chairman of the Higher Education Commission

In today’s world, nations are not built just by investing in brick and mortar in roads and bridges, in dams and powerhouses but by their ability to unleash the creative potential of their youth and use their talents for socio-economic development.

In order to develop a knowledge economy, a clear road map has to be developed through what is now a well understood and documented procedure — a Delphi-type ‘foresight exercise’. This involves a thorough and careful analysis of each sector to identify the key programmes for future development, including an assessment of the natural resources of the country, the niche opportunities after considering the current and future growth areas with emphasis on new and emerging technologies, the export opportunities and import substitution potential in different sectors and the investments needed to prepare the required skilled human resources.

In order to transition from a low value added agriculture economy to a knowledge economy, the three major players that need to come together are universities, industry and government. Universities need to adequately prepare human talent needed in each sector, as well as to set up technology parks and business incubators to provide opportunities to young entrepreneurs to establish new start-up companies. The facilities that should be freely available within such technology parks include legal and financial services as well as professional management advisors. The government can make the needed investments to improve university standards of teaching and research, set up centres of excellence in selected fields, provide financial assistance for the establishment of technology parks, provide venture capital towards new high technology industries, offer tax incentives to new technology-based industries and make national self-reliance the cornerstone of national policies and development plans.

The private industrial sector has a critical role to play in this effort to set up a knowledge economy. Indeed, the single most striking difference between research and development (R&D) expenditure in developing countries versus the technologically advanced countries is that in the advanced world, most of the R&D expenditure comes from the private sector whereas in the developing world, the investment made by the private sector is miniscule, the government being the main provider of research funding. Such funding is useful to create a research environment in universities and adequately train scientific manpower but it is not focused to develop new industrial products, improve productivity or improve product quality and boost exports.

So, the problems in Pakistan in this respect are twofold: firstly, we spend too little on education, science and technology and secondly, whatever we do spend, cannot be properly used by industry because of a lack of a research culture in industries and a critical shortage of properly trained manpower. We are not alone in this respect: similar problems afflict other Islamic countries. The Organisation of Islamic Countries (OIC) countries spend an average of only 0.46 per cent of their GDP on R&D, compared to three per cent or more of the much larger GDPs of technologically advanced countries. This is reflected in the fact that the R&D expenditure per capita of OIC countries (which include the oil-rich states) is only $27 compared to $601 for the European Union countries. Among the OIC member states, Malaysia is the only country in which the private sector contributes the highest percentage to the R&D expenditure — about 85 per cent, with only about 15 per cent being contributed by the government. The average R&D expenditure contributed by the private sector in other OIC countries is less than five per cent of the total R&D expenditure in those countries. This disparity between Malaysia and other OIC countries is reflected in high technology exports. About 87 per cent of total high technology exports from OIC member countries are contributed by Malaysia alone ($52 billion) with the remaining 56 OIC member countries contributing only 13 per cent. This is a remarkable fact.

In 2004, the Pakistan Cabinet decided that such a technology-based industrial vision and strategy for Pakistan’s socio-economic development should be carried out under my leadership. This would set a clear national path to determine how the country could transition to a knowledge economy and rid itself of hunger and poverty that engulf large sectors of our urban and rural population. Over the subsequent two years, an intensive exercise was carried out to determine the road map within the 13 different key sectors (agriculture, engineering, information technology, telecommunications, electronics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc). This involved detailed consultations within each sector among subject experts, industrialists, specialists among our diaspora abroad and officials of the relevant ministries of the provincial and federal governments. The specific projects to be launched within each sector were thoroughly debated and then identified along with their costs, technical and human resource requirements and the benefits. As a result of this effort, a 300-page document was prepared, which clearly sets out what Pakistan must do in each sector over the next 15 years, broken into three five-year periods, the cost of each project, the institutions to undertake the work and the impact on the national economy and on the process of social development. This 15-year industrial vision, strategy and action plan was approved by the Cabinet in August 2007 and an inter-ministerial committee was constituted for its implementation. Unfortunately, nothing was done later as a new government was soon formed that had other priorities and this important document now lies gathering dust in the cabinet division and in the prime minister’s office.

The only way out of this huge mess that we have created in Pakistan is an honest, technologically-competent and visionary leadership that realises that our real wealth lies in our youth and makes massive investments in schools, technical colleges and universities so that Pakistan can unleash its creative potential and establish a strong knowledge economy. All we need is sensible decision-makers.

Published in The Express Tribune, December 1st, 2012.

Facebook Conversations

Reader Comments (46)

  • ashok
    Dec 1, 2012 - 12:04AM

    Says who that Pakistan does not have a knowledge economy?

    Pakistan is leaading the world in establishing long-term Saria-based knowledge uneconomical economy.


  • Moeen@iiui
    Dec 1, 2012 - 1:07AM

    Well written sir ,, the prosperity and development which was seen by the education sector during your tenure was the best in past 65 years of Pakistan history,even our neighbors were astonished and felt this situation as a threat.. unfortunately the incumbent leadership has no sense of making a prosperous Pakistan and they are doing there utmost to bring down the institution which you and your team developed with a lot of efforts…like what they have done with the ED Sohail naqvi..

    @ ashok..if all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail.. think ””””


  • arindom
    Dec 1, 2012 - 2:20AM

    Religious indoctrination, false history, hate India school curriculum , etc can never engender a knowledge economy.


  • gp65
    Dec 1, 2012 - 2:53AM

    @ashok: That was uncool and uncalled for. Dr.Rahman has written an insightful and thoughtful article using his exceptionally successful stint in HEC and the article and author need to be treated with respect.


  • Kamran
    Dec 1, 2012 - 4:27AM

    What is difference between North and South; “is the only Science Difference” these are word of Prof Abdus Salam. We dont have universities in Pakistan as compare to India is 40 years ahead to Pakistan in Science,,, Indian scientist Ashoke Sen became a millionaire overnight when he won the $3m Fundamental Physics Prize, the world’s most lucrative academic award, recently!! “It is wonderful that we have an Indian physicist getting recognised in a big way for fundamental research. This is great news for science in India,” said the prime minister’s science adviser CNR Rao”””
    Freedom of inquiry, freedom of discussion, and freedom of teaching – without these a university cannot exist.
    I request Govt of Pak please let us learn like India to our youth. Why you want us ignorant!!!
    The true university of these days is a collection of books.


  • Rashid
    Dec 1, 2012 - 4:32AM

    Why we just want our army in compare to Indian army, why we not make our higher education in compare to Indian higher education…….The Rajya Sabha passed two key bills to enable students of Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research get their degrees and give 8 new IITs their status through an Act of Parliament.
    The Institutes of Technology (Amendment) Bill, 2011, already passed by the Lok Sabha, seeks to set up eight new Indian Institutes of Technology in Bhubaneshwar, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, Indore, Jodhpur, Mandi, Patna and Ropar and integrate the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, within the ambit of the Act.


  • Jamshyd
    Dec 1, 2012 - 5:16AM

    what is going in our neighbourhood we can learn from them at least! Mr Zardari and Nawaz Sharif please give education a priority in Pakistan!It is well written article!!! we have to do now
    Rippling through India’s education system are giant waves of young people who by 2020 will swell the country’s labor pool by 100 million workers. And more will be coming behind them: Half the 1.2 billion people here are younger than age 25. By contrast, China, Europe, and other major economies face shrinking workforces because of aging populations.

    To accommodate this crush of young people, the Indian government says the country must build 1,000 universities and 50,000 colleges within the next decade. By comparison, the total number of colleges in the United States, including two-year institutions, is 4,200.

    Simply put, this country needs more institutions of higher learning if it is going to be an economic powerhouse in the 21st century. It also needs better schools. And it needs them now.

    A recent study by the McKinsey Global Institute, a consulting firm, found that less than 17 percent of India’s graduates were immediately employable. As a result, top Indian firms often have to put new hires through months of in-house schooling to train them for jobs for which they were supposed to be qualified.

    Granted, this is not the image of Indian students that many outsiders, particularly Americans, hold. US medical schools and engineering programs seem to be full of Indians excelling in the theoretical math and biochemistry courses that many other students often struggle with or shun.


  • Its (still) Econonmy Stupid
    Dec 1, 2012 - 5:55AM

    Pakistan needs a tech savy PM. India can lend few like Modi, Naidu, Nadkarni to name few. Blowing up school and not investigating and condeming is not helpful either. World most tech savy leaders are women.


  • Its (still) Econonmy Stupid
    Dec 1, 2012 - 5:56AM

    Pakistan needs a tech savy PM. India can lend few like Modi, Naidu, Nadkarni to name few. Blowing up girls school and not investigating and condeming is not helpful either. World most tech savy leaders are women.


  • PK
    Dec 1, 2012 - 7:39AM

    I liked the article.

    Why can’t we have student exchange programs and have the best and the brightest from Pakistan study in India and vice versa in the top colleges. This will be the best people to people contact.


  • Hemant
    Dec 1, 2012 - 8:23AM

    The Author has diagnosed the problem but is running away from analyzing the reasons . Comparing what Pakistan spends on education with what other OIC countries spend on it is fallacious . Other than Islam Pakistan has very little if anything in common with other OIC countries . India fortunately did not fall in a similar trap . Though it has great deal in common with Nepal rarely does it benchmark itself with Nepal which like India is a Hindu majority country .
    Much more relevant comparison of the Pakistan economy would have been with India. It would have made such a welcome change from both our countries otherwise only comparing our nuclear arsenals and tanks .


  • Dec 1, 2012 - 8:59AM

    Well written Sir and about time.

    Above knowledge is love : love! we hope love and all good things finds us! I guess there is some use for everyone. After all after the venerable Dr’s vehement denunciation of the water car this is probably a step in the right direction. BTW Mercedez just displayed a model that uses recycled water and (hydrogen split from that water) to fuel its SUVs.

    As for the Indians on our boards : please you guys are already blessed with lots of great things, please leave us alone. We got Pakistan so we do not have to put up with negative Indians deliberately misleading us (we are Ok with the educated and loving Indians like Gandhi and Tagore and Amartya Sen and Abdul Kalam, just not with Indians who are nasty and unkind and do bad things).


  • Observer
    Dec 1, 2012 - 10:22AM

    I can hear many in Pakistan saying “all that you one needs to learn is all in the Quran. Quran contains all the knowledge the world and mankind ever need”.Recommend

  • Ali Ashfaq
    Dec 1, 2012 - 10:29AM

    We hope that people will support the change in the coming elections for an honest and visionary leader.


  • Dec 1, 2012 - 11:21AM

    An excellent article by Dr. Attaur Rehman. This person has done so much for the ‘Higher Education’ in Pakistan.


  • David_Smith
    Dec 1, 2012 - 11:26AM

    @ Ashok
    plain silly
    @Kamran, Rashid and Jamshyd.
    I would not overestimate the education system in India. However, the Government of India seems to have come out its slumber and some new ideas have been floated – expansion of Universities, IITs, IIMs, entry of foreign Universities, making bank loans easier to study in India and abroad etc. But this is India and it will be some time before the kinks are ironed out. The private sector is already in a big way into higher education and their role should be further encouraged (hopefully while the Governments – center and states – focus on primary and secondary level education.
    Jamshyd, if I am not mistaken, the McKinsey study referred to employment at the global level.


  • Qasim Jan
    Dec 1, 2012 - 11:41AM

    well written.
    we Should Spread like these Messages in our nation, then We hope that our nation will bring change in Pakistan.


  • Dec 1, 2012 - 11:42AM

    Malaysian high-tech exports example is misleading because Malaysians do fairly low value added work of assembly and testing for US Corporations like Intel.

    Knowledge-based economy has much more to do with adoption of key technologies in business and economy than expanding higher education or domestic R&D in developing countries.

    For decades Pakistan has been seeing increasing use of technology to enhance productivity in many sectors ranging from agriculture (Green and Livestock Revolutions) and banking (mobile and branchless) to education (Virtual University) and retailing (Supply Chains).

    Vocational training and skills development of workers are the best ways to continue to foster knowledge economy in Pakistan.


  • shoaib ali
    Dec 1, 2012 - 12:42PM

    Dear sir
    An enlightened column;Please upload the said document on net and if it is available on some website; please send me the address or if u have pdf formet of that doc please send me on my emaill address.
    Looking forward
    Shoaib ali


  • Muhammad Hasnain Gilani
    Dec 1, 2012 - 2:51PM

    A comparatively young CEO of renowned multinational Telecom company, replied to a question by Charlie Rose in a TV discourse on Bloomberg said that he was a “thinker and Builder”. The people who are thinkers and builders and not the nice talkers bring visible social changes in the society. Our problems are lot of talkers with nicely presented arguments for and against on any topic. With all respect to Doctor Saheb, for being one of the best teachers, kind heartened, humble and honorable personality of the country, he had ample opportunities by holding top positions to bring visible repeat visible changes in the country.

    Anyway thanks for writing an excellent article for students and economic planners especially Economic Commission of Pakistan who may consider Doctor Saheb for a suitable position utilizing his services on a package commensurate to his CV.

    A Peshawary


  • Fateh Mohammed
    Dec 1, 2012 - 3:36PM

    Malaysian technological progress and exports are due to hard work , intellect , desire to succeed and progress of the fifty percent or slightly more of Chinese population in the demographic mix of Malaysia and not because of economically protected and advantaged Bhumiputras . Singapore a miniscule seceded land strip of Malaysia is today counted amongst the advanced countries of South East Asia because of majority Chinese population . Its the culture which is the cause of inertia .


  • asim
    Dec 1, 2012 - 3:45PM

    To whom suggestions are being made. It is not in the interest of the current leaders to liston to such things.
    The private sector have to play role in this sector they are just minting money.


  • Jahangir Mari
    Dec 1, 2012 - 4:13PM

    Visionary and experienced Atta-ur-Rahman once again tries to shake the real stewards in Rawalpindi from their deep slumber, which is dangerous for the Pakistani state, its economy and its military-industrial well-being. The danger, identified by Dr. Atta, is now assuming terminal proportions. Crippling of economy = Crippling of Pakistani Armed Forces = Crippling of Industry/technology: How long can this equation be permitted by the overseers in Rawalpindi?


  • Zeux
    Dec 1, 2012 - 6:08PM

    Take your silly lame trolling somewhere else. God these overly obsessed individuals.


  • Zeux
    Dec 1, 2012 - 6:10PM

    Don’t tell me you teach love Pakistan in your school curriculum. Correct yourself before lecturing others.

    This is what you teach your children


  • Jamshyd
    Dec 1, 2012 - 7:28PM

    @ David_Smith, I want to correct you that This Survey clearly mention the word Indian Graduates, SO please dont mix it with Global Graduates. You can Read my comments carefully,
    Were I not a king, I would be a university man, in the words of King James I. !!Thanks


  • Dec 1, 2012 - 8:55PM

    It takes years to build a scientifically trained pool of manpower that can drive a knowledge based economy. In the case of India, it took us at least 40 years of hard work and persistence to do this. Such an effort has to ride a curriculum that is open to accepting and trying all kinds of old and new ideas and ideologies. The history of great Islamic Empires demonstrates that science and technology flourished in these empires and they were on the cutting edge of knowledge and advancement in every known field of science when they were open societies, open to ideas and intelelct from every other nation, faith and eithinicty. Based on today’s curriculum that is available to the average Pakistani student and the educational and advancement opportunities presented to them by their nation, achieving a knowledge based economy is a far cry. However, its is the responsibility and the moral duty of educated people like Mr. Rahman come forward and push for change, for only lifting literacy standards of ordinary Pakistanis can deliver the nation from the present predicament.


  • Dec 1, 2012 - 9:26PM

    @Jamshyd: “Granted, this is not the image of Indian students that many outsiders, particularly Americans, hold. US medical schools and engineering programs..”

    Outside a few top tier Indian schools like the IITs, the quality of Indian graduates is dismal, and most American employers know this fact. It’s also confirmed by the fact that Indian students rank at the bottom on international tests like PISA and TIMSS.


  • Arindom
    Dec 2, 2012 - 12:14AM


    Mate, that was a video of a crazy whacko – nobody knows! I am talking here of Official Central and State Board Published Textbooks that are compulsory reading for all School Children- show me even one word in ANY Indian Central or State textbook at says – “hate Pakistan”. You’ll find none – in face we are taught in school to “love thy neighbour” — thats the reason we have a world beating Knowledge Economy!


  • Dec 2, 2012 - 2:54AM

    @Jamshyd: “Granted, this is not the image of Indian students that many outsiders, particularly Americans, hold. US medical schools and engineering programs..”

    Other than a few top tier Indian schools like the IITs, the quality of Indian graduates is dismal, and most American employers know this fact. It’s also confirmed by the fact that Indian students rank at the bottom on international tests like PISA and TIMSS.


  • Jamshyd
    Dec 2, 2012 - 7:48AM

    @Raiz Haq! Are you not reading the whole sentence what I wrote, I feel you fail to comprehand the last paragraph, read these lines carefully you hope understand, “US medical schools and engineering programs seem to be full of Indians excelling in the theoretical math and biochemistry courses that many other students often struggle with or shun”.
    You have no ideas how teacher are in US universities from India. And they are wining the best teacher award there too.
    And we pakistani have no faculty member in US universities.
    Indians are excelling in education lot now days.


  • Dec 2, 2012 - 11:12AM

    @Arindom: “in face we are taught in school to “love thy neighbour”

    Indian Supreme Court Justice Katju recently said the myth-making against Muslim rulers, which was a post-1857 British project, had been internalized in India over the years. Thus, Mahmud Ghazni’s destruction of the Somnath temple was known but not the fact that Tipu Sultan gave an annual grant to 156 Hindu temples. The judge, who delivered the valedictory address at a conference held to mark the silver jubilee of the Institute of Objective Studies, buttressed his arguments with examples quoted from D.N. Pande’s History in the Service of Imperialism.

    Dr. Pande, who summarized his conclusions in a lecture to members of the Rajya Sabha in 1977, had said: “Thus under a definite policy the Indian history textbooks were so falsified and distorted as to give an impression that the medieval period of Indian history was full of atrocities committed by Muslim rulers on their Hindu subjects and the Hindus had to suffer terrible indignities under Islamic rule.”

    Justice Katju said Dr. Pande came upon the truth about Tipu Sultan in 1928 while verifying a contention — made in a history textbook authored by Dr. Har Prashad Shastri, the then head of the Sanskrit Department in Calcutta University — that during Tipu’s rule 3,000 Brahmins had committed suicide to escape conversion to Islam. The only authentication Dr. Shastri could provide was that the reference was contained in the Mysore Gazetteer. But the Gazetteer contained no such reference.

    Further research by Dr. Pande showed not only that Tipu paid annual grants to 156 temples, but that he enjoyed cordial relations with the Shankaracharya of Sringeri Math to whom he had addressed at least 30 letters. Dr. Shastri’s book, which was in use at the time in high schools across India, was later de-prescribed. But the unsubstantiated allegation continued to masquerade as a fact in history books written later.


  • gp65
    Dec 2, 2012 - 11:52AM

    @Zeux: “Don’t tell me you teach love Pakistan in your school curriculum. Correct yourself before lecturing others.
    This is what you teach your children”

    Is her speech part of any school curriculum? In Pakistan giving speeches about jihad and shahadat was part of school curriculum. There can be bigoted people present in any country but you would be hard pressed to come up with examles of institutionalized bigotry in India and there in lies the difference with Pakistan.


  • gp65
    Dec 2, 2012 - 12:10PM

    @Riaz Haq: “Outside a few top tier Indian schools like the IITs, the quality of Indian graduates is dismal, and most American employers know this fact”.

    Ofcourse. That is why Obama talks about being Bangalored. The World is Flat extensively covered India. 70% of Fortune 500 companies have a fairly large presence i India wherein they are treating India not just as a market but as a human resource base.


  • Jamshyd
    Dec 2, 2012 - 4:20PM

    @ Mr Raiz you are taking debate in political side. I realised you are wired person, sounds sick minded and like self liking. Please try to understand what is education. We are taking here education and particularly science education. I feel you are not science graduate, or you know any science. You need some treatment and I recommend you try to read some basic science books. What is your qualification?? And what is your contribution to any subject??? Have you have ever published any paper.


  • arindom
    Dec 2, 2012 - 4:23PM

    @Riaz Haq: cant comment on personal opinion. Historians debate. Be to the point. Today and now. In reality. Officialpakistani textbooks teach hatred of india and hindus. Yes or no?


  • Kamran
    Dec 2, 2012 - 4:31PM

    We must understand what is the real way to make progress in world, We may have to walk on the foot steps of the Asian giant. What defines a global “superpower”? In the past, it was the size of national armies or possession of nuclear weapons.
    But now there is a more important benchmark: the size and prestige of university systems.
    And, while the US is still the global higher education “superpower”, China will soon be knocking it off top spot if current trends continue.
    IN 1996, China produced just 5,000 PhD students a year. That was only about half the number in the UK, Japan. Since then, China has overtaken every other country in the world except the US in terms of the numbers of doctoral degrees awarded.
    The numbers have risen to 34,000 in 2006 and, based on current enrolments, this will surge past 50,000 a year in just three or four years, at which point it will overtake the current world leader, the US. We have to learn lesson from China in higher education.
    But I feel Zardari and Nawaz Sharif have to such vision to understand the need of R&D to make progressive land. What they did in Last five years even they slash the HEC funding in Pakistan.


  • Physicist
    Dec 2, 2012 - 5:12PM

    Very outstanding comments by Sir Atta Urehman, there is dire need to make some changes in order to rid off the current mess spreading across country among different sectorsRecommend

  • Dec 2, 2012 - 7:03PM

    Well, the problem is understood and the universities are doing their best in resources they’ve been given. Dr. Atta did his best during his time and I would question why they document is still lying in the cabinet division and at PM office??

    I beleive the worst part is engaging the talents, learned, professionally trained youth back into the industry… which we lack. We come across Wasta & Safarish culture and then the talent gets drained out. Why our education system is not inline with Industry? Why the industrial needs are not communicated to the higher education to produce whats required..


  • Dec 2, 2012 - 10:00PM

    @gp65: “Ofcourse. That is why Obama talks about being Bangalored. The World is Flat extensively covered India. 70% of Fortune 500 companies have a fairly large presence i India wherein they are treating India not just as a market but as a human resource base.”

    All of these Indian accomplishments are highly exaggerated. Please read Times of India story “India rising in US: Govt falls victim to net hoax” to learn the truth.

    A serious Harvard University paper titled “India Shining, Bharat Drowning” also exposes a lot of myths about Indian education.

    India watchers such as Fareed Zakaria, an Indian-American who often acts as a cheerleader for India in the US, have expressed doubts about the quality of education at the Indian Institutes of Technology. In his book “The Post-American World”, Zakaria argues that “many of the IITs are decidedly second-rate, with mediocre equipment, indifferent teachers, and unimaginative classwork.”


  • Dec 2, 2012 - 10:32PM

    @arindom: “cant comment on personal opinion. Historians debate. Be to the point.”

    It’s not merely a historian debate. It’s the former Chief Justice of India talking about India’s official textbooks promoting hatred against Muslims.

    In his book “We” (1939), Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar, the leader of the Hindu Nationalist RSS (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh) wrote, “To keep up the purity of the Race and its culture, Germany shocked the world by her purging the country of the Semitic races — the Jews. Race pride at its highest has been manifested here. Germany has also shown how well-nigh impossible it is for races and cultures, having differences going to the root, to be assimilated into one united whole, a good lesson for us in Hindusthan to learn and profit by.” (We, p.35/p.43)

    It’s the kind of Hindutva education that started with Golwalkar’s agenda of applying Hitler’s Final Solution to South Asian Muslims that has sowed the seeds of Hindu hatred against Muslims.


  • Zeux
    Dec 2, 2012 - 11:15PM

    fine show me state issued books of any province where hatred against india is promoted. Do you have any exact quotes from any book?

    Punjab Textbook board , Lahore
    Sindh Textbook board
    BalochistanTextbook board
    KPK Textbook board
    National Book Foundation

    Books from these publishers are taught in government schools. Go ahead find me something


  • Zeux
    Dec 2, 2012 - 11:21PM

    I don’t study indian curriculum and never bothered Your media, Your teachers, Parents and everybody else give enough dosage :hatred for Pakistan”. I don’t see any drop in hatred in india, whereas situation in Pakistan is completely different.


  • Nishant
    Dec 3, 2012 - 3:59PM

    if u cannot follow India’s example
    then kindly follow Turkey’s model
    just take some action for a start


  • Arindom
    Dec 6, 2012 - 5:03AM

    @Riaz Haq:
    Mate, again youare harping to 1939 – pre-independance – I can’t comment on that. Tell me TODAY., now! even a couple of decades earlier. Since the times I’ve been in school, I’ve only been taught secularism and harmony – you are free to go and check ANY Indian textbook…….again, donot bore me with almost 100 year old historical debates….


  • Indian Wisdom
    Dec 18, 2012 - 11:20AM

    Very well written sir…
    I have always admired your thoughtful articles. If only the initiatives which you had taken, would have been allowed to continue without any disturbance, we would have been in a very healthy competition with your country !! Your innovations needs to be replicated and extended to other south Asian counties as well (though India has replicated some of our models in University innovations….) and not just Pakistan.


More in Opinion