AQ Khan: the truth finally prevails

Published: October 12, 2012
The writer is a retired air commodore of the Pakistan Air Force and is author of Flight of the Falcon (Vanguard, 2009)

The writer is a retired air commodore of the Pakistan Air Force and is author of Flight of the Falcon (Vanguard, 2009)

The damning truth exposed by a former director general nuclear power, Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood, in his article “The whole truth — nuclear Pakistan” (September 4), published in The News, must have been astonishing for the general public. It should be an eye-opener for all of us, especially the vibrant media, which never tires of glorifying AQ Khan as an eminent nuclear supremo.

AQ Khan built the facade of his invincibility by condemning all the superb accomplishments of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) — achieved over 20 years of dedication, by real nuclear, chemical, metallurgical and mining scientists — and by brazenly denigrating the real but humble hero, Munir Ahmed Khan. For those in the know, Munir will always be the indisputable father of the nuclear embryo and its development into the final product UF-6, without which a thousand centrifuges are as useless as a cooking pot without any feedstock. All this had been achieved before AQ Khan entered the fray in 1976. The scores of exceptional scientists on Munir’s team were responsible for mining 10,000 tonnes of uranium, which was put through yellow cake to liquification and gasification to be fed into the centrifuges for eventual separation of U-235-from U-238 and solidification to produce weapon-grade uranium. All of this was achieved at the PAEC, under Munir’s watch.

AQ Khan had the part of the centrifuge to separate the elements and that was sent back to the PAEC for processing to create the final product, i.e., weapon-grade uranium. However, even that was just the first phase of what was to become a nuclear weapon capable of reaching its target and being delivered with accuracy for desired results. This was the cardinal phase, whereby a nuclear triggering mechanism had to be created and the weapon integration in the weapon attack system had to be carried by the best and fastest fighter aircraft, an F-16 in this case.

This aircraft could evade the enemy air defence and deliver the weapon accurately. Pakistan did not have missile technology then. The consummate professional who engaged in this indispensable phase was Hafeez Qureshi, the head of the Directorate of Technical Development (DTD). Later, a Pakistan Air Force engineering element was added to the project. The cold drop by a Mirage at the Lalian Range was a near direct hit by one of my former junior colleagues. AQ Khan had no part in this entire development at the DTD.

The public and AQ Khan’s admirers should know that firstly, he was just a copper metallurgist employed in Holland by Urenco and assigned to a less sensitive section, which was not directly involved in development of centrifuges. His first assignment in Pakistan was as an assistant to the project director. The process from mining to yellow cake stage to liquifying to gaseous and final solid metal weapon-grade uranium was the labour of love of hundreds of scientists. AQ Khan, indeed, had his role in equal measure as did each one of the team to have reverse engineered the centrifuge. Little known, though, is the fact that the protocol type centrifuges had already been made in the Chaklala barracks before AQ Khan joined in 1976. The design he brought was incomplete and intense research was carried out under GD Alam, along with Anwar Ali, Ejaz Khokhar, Javed Mirza and others. It is time that the combined effort of scores of heroic Pakistani scientists and engineers who chose to remain anonymous, is recognised.

Published in The Express Tribune, October 13th, 2012.

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Reader Comments (55)

  • karma
    Oct 12, 2012 - 10:44PM

    False Heros, False Ideology, False Goals and False Path. Who’ll transform Pakistan from its terrible path to destruction?


  • Mirza
    Oct 12, 2012 - 11:03PM

    A. Q. Khan is such a great scientist that he walks on water and runs his car on hydrogen obtained from water. Sad to say but this house of cards is running on false stories.


  • MK
    Oct 12, 2012 - 11:09PM

    OK so AQ Khan is not the only Hero, He never claimed he did all by himself either. This may be “astonishing to general public” but so would be many other facts about our country and religion. It is “general public” or the media to blame for their ignorance and not AQ Khan himself.


  • Abreez
    Oct 12, 2012 - 11:16PM

    Victory has many godfathers, defeat none. The best military moves by our great military minds were and are against our politicians and the best political moves by our great politicians were and are against army, this is history of Pakistan after 1950.


  • Hasan
    Oct 12, 2012 - 11:21PM

    WE never stop glorifying failed scientists like AQK, whose only acheivement was to STEAL documents from western labs and then distribute around the world in exchange of dollars. His intellect can be found when he justified the fraud water kit. He has bring shame to the nation and his family. Entire world considers us as thieves stealing others work.


  • mystreeman
    Oct 13, 2012 - 12:03AM

    Really………..he may be a false hero but when our eminent writers start writing about “True Villains” like Generals who toppled the civilian governments, who messed up the civilian institutions, who brought anarchy to the country in which we find ourselves. Kindly lay off A.Q.Khan.


  • Max
    Oct 13, 2012 - 1:17AM

    There is nothing more that I will agree with you.


  • Majid
    Oct 13, 2012 - 1:39AM

    If AQ Khan is one extreme, you are the other extreme of the same line. The way you have undermined him and glorified everyone else is not all true. But anyway the point is if ‘people in charge’ of the matters knew that AQ Khan is not the lone hero, why media presented him as a long hero all the time. Why not other scientist or media person or people like you stood and demanded their piece of the triumph too? This is a big time question. We – the people of Pakistan only knows what we are told. Earlier we were told, it was AQKhan who did the things now we are being told, he was not the one who did the things. To whom to believe?


  • Latha
    Oct 13, 2012 - 2:18AM

    And then there are the unknown, unnamed Chinese scientists who provided Pakistan with the turn-key bomb. Layers upon layers……


  • Umar
    Oct 13, 2012 - 2:19AM

    Many engineers and scientists working with PAEC later suffered from cancer and died as unsung heroes. There scarifies must be acknowledged too


  • Babbarsher Khan
    Oct 13, 2012 - 2:43AM

    So what if the glory of making a “bomb”for Ummah is taken away from this great soul, he is ready for another undeniable glory of inventing a kit to run a car on distilled water in collaboration with another equally great engineer/scientist Agha Waqar!


  • just_someone
    Oct 13, 2012 - 2:54AM

    Absolutely sir, anyone with any knowledge of physics and the stages of development of a nuclear weapon knows Dr Munir Khan was the key person in Pakistan developing a nuclear weapon and AQ Khan was just a low level thief who isnt even a physicist but a metallurgical engineer. He helped make the final product by stealing technology but this technology could have been developed internally. Hence, he was not key, a lot of great scientists worked to make this happen through their own hard work who have been marginalized.

    It is sad in our country the real people who work and achieve do not get credit and others who werent as important do get the credit.
    It reminds me of something apparently Faiz Ahmed Faiz wrote in the diary of Abdul Salam:
    “Nisar mein teri galli-yoon pe aii watan keh jahan chali hai rasm key koi na sar utha ke chaley”
    (My life is dedicated to the streets of the motherland where custom demands that no one should walk with head held high)

    We as a nation will never progress unless we can give due public credit to our real heroes. Our heroes today are the ones youngsters look up to and try to emulate. Give them someone great to emulate and we will progress more and more!


  • Riaz Khan
    Oct 13, 2012 - 2:59AM

    He is a true villian.Recommend

  • Hasan
    Oct 13, 2012 - 3:39AM


    Believe me, these controversies come a distant second to the disgrace and idiocy which is largely the hallmark of Hindustan’s ‘successes’ since Partition. At least our scientists formulated a nuclear deterrent – try reading up on the comments of your own elite team of brainboxes, particularly the man who oversaw the nuclear tests in Hindustan and went on record stating that they were a farce.

    And let’s not even discuss the national embarrassment of your ‘flying coffins’, your indigenous disasters, or your numerous failures in terms of poverty reduction and social cohesion. Perhaps a little less time getting worked up on the internet and a little more time building toilets would be a good idea for you.

    There’s nothing more fun than educating a Hindustani…



  • gp65
    Oct 13, 2012 - 5:01AM

    @Hasan: You entire response to karma was based on showing how poor India’s defense sector is. As poor as it maybe, India is not the one that lost all those wars.

    Secondly, we built schools and now all the kids are in school and we will build the toilets. We will fix our problems – one at a time and not give excuses by pointing at neighbors and saying they have it worse.

    You on the other hand can choose to ignore how your mullahs and army have collaborated to radicalize your entire country for a few dollars and rial.

    I have an expectation that India’s tomorrow will be better than today if it stays on current path. Do you have the same expectation for Pakistan?


  • gp65
    Oct 13, 2012 - 5:06AM

    @Hasan: “little more time building toilets would be a good idea for you.”
    In India we have a minister who dares to say that India has a greater need to build toilets than temples. Show me a politician in Pakistan who can say there is a greater need to build schools than masjids.


  • Karma
    Oct 13, 2012 - 5:18AM


    Sir, not Saying india doesn’t have faults. But, it is not racing to abyss either. It’s biggest problems are corruption and mass poverty. But, it does not have holy cows like AQ Khan or Army, and anyone can be an is dragged to court and punished.

    Do educate us, and the likes of Malala… We need that in sub continent.


  • Imran
    Oct 13, 2012 - 6:23AM

    Please stop the mud slinging. Its become a norm in Pakistani society, What if AQ Khan became a hero. Does it really matter to Pakistan? Let the people be the judge of it. If someone wants him to be a hero, let him be the hero, it really doesn’t matter. Please move on to more important things to the masses like education, healthcare, economy etc.



  • kanwal
    Oct 13, 2012 - 6:51AM

    I think we have enough heroes already who helped with their best efforts to make sure this nation eats grass but makes a bomb which Islam does not even allow to make. So thanks for your try to enlighten us all, but no thanks.


  • tariq
    Oct 13, 2012 - 7:17AM

    Ok Ok
    Parents of this article writer made atom bomb for pakistan.
    Now happy?


  • Oct 13, 2012 - 7:26AM

    Any country which will divert enough resources will get a N-bomb. Even North Korea has one! Iran is on its way to getting one..

    Whats the big deal?

    Pakistan due to its massive spending on defence is having an economy that refuses to grow. Economies don’t grow if you allocate most of the resources to defence and not development.

    Even after developing the nukes, Pakistan has joined the ranks of North Korea and Isreal, not the P6 and India.

    Big toys are for big boys. When the little ones get it they end up like North Korea, and Pakistan is heading that way. Israel, if not for the overwhelming American support, would have gone North Korea’s way. Pakistan has no such support.


  • Raw is War
    Oct 13, 2012 - 7:35AM

    It was know all along- AQ Khan was a fake.


  • Rao Amjad Ali
    Oct 13, 2012 - 8:09AM

    Together with Dr. Munir Ahmed khan, would you say that Dr. Ashfaq Ahmed’s name might also merit mention?


  • mr. righty rightist
    Oct 13, 2012 - 8:49AM

    In India there is a similar but dissimilar ignorance.

    Many Indians do not know that the father of Indian nuclear weapons is Raja Ramanna.

    Nobody discredits him. But, he is not that well known among Indians. APJ Abdul Kalam who was an exemplary rocket scientist is many people’s idol. Which is fine, however I fail to understand how one of the greatest scientists India has seen and one who conducted India’s first ever nuclear tests is forgotten so easily by the general public and mainly the Indian news papers.


  • Indian Wisdom
    Oct 13, 2012 - 10:15AM

    This happens in most of the laboratories and most of the institutions around the world. The actual scientists who are not power hungry gets sidelined by power mongers and fakes. If that happened to Mr. Munir Khan no big deal!!!
    Though the designs he brought to the table were stolen from abroad but the manipulation skills he exhibited was genuinely his own!!!


  • sabi
    Oct 13, 2012 - 11:35AM

    A Q Khan was a stunt man (It could be anyone from nuclear team) for establishment to tow
    the policy of ambiguance on Pakistan covert nuclear programm.Media was encouraged to keep this man in limelight so that the policy of ambiguance can be implemented effectivly.That policy worked though,Qadir Khan exploitrd his post beyond limits and succeded to project
    him as the savior of nation.This was a blatant lie but thanks to urdu media which fully co-operated with this man and misled the nation for vested intrests.
    I fully endorsed the views of the author and
    Excellant articl kudos and regards to author.


  • Rampage
    Oct 13, 2012 - 3:14PM

    we donot need to build toilets we have enough of them and we build them before building rooms. Building toilets can be a issue in India


  • Parvez
    Oct 13, 2012 - 3:49PM

    Very interesting. It’s good when, what thinking people perceive are spelt out loud and clear so that the ambiguity is at least, partly removed.
    A.Q.Khan has always been an attention seeker and at that level, that’s a major failing.


  • Oct 13, 2012 - 5:30PM

    A. Q. Khan is a weak man easily manipulated by clever people for their own ends. He has taken advantage and has been taken advantage of numerous times for projecting himself at the cost of his admirers. Replicas of Chaghi mountain and Ghori missiles installed at his behest at different points, show how narrow a vision he has of exceptional achievements. Media that blew him sky high also took full advantage of the state and other resources at the disposal of the Khan.
    I am writing about the antics of the Khan and his supporters.


  • faheema
    Oct 13, 2012 - 9:22PM

    @ gp65, Pl never be vociferous, Malalah Yousafzai is paying price for simple demand of female education, your demand is far more provocative for Talibans, never show your whereabouts.


  • gp65
    Oct 13, 2012 - 11:19PM

    @Rampage: “@gp65:
    we donot need to build toilets we have enough of them and we build them before building rooms. Building toilets can be a issue in India”

    Please read my post again. Nowhere have I implied that Pakistan needs more toilets – I have said Pakistan needs more schools. Surely you do not disagree?

    @Fahima “@ gp65, Pl never be vociferous, Malalah Yousafzai is paying price for simple demand of female education, your demand is far more provocative for Talibans, never show your whereabouts.”

    Thank you Ma’m for your concern. I do recognize the truth of what you are saying and am aware of what happened to Taseer, Bhatti and Qadri. My point is that if the politicians had fought for the women’s right to education, young Malala (whose courage I greatly admire and for whose health I pray) would not be left to fight the good fight. I was specifically responding to Hasan who was making fun of the fact that India lacked adequate toilets. And my point was that inadequate toilets is a problem in India just as inadequate schools -particularly for women – is in Pakistan. But the difference is that in India this problem is recognized and a minister is willing to make a statement that India needs more toilets than temples and he can do so knowing that this will not put his life at risk. Once a problem is recognized , it will be solved. But the fact that despite Malala’s sacrifice no politician in Pakistan (barring perhaps Altaf) is willing to condemn the Taliban’s denial of education to women means that the problem is unlikely to be solved in the near future.

    I hope that explains where I was coming from.


  • Sid
    Oct 13, 2012 - 11:54PM

    Its so easy for the above commentators to stay oh Pakistani steal western technology. Is it a candy that Pakistan stole. These people think coming on websites and posting comments or updating facebook status maligning Pakistan is cool. They most likely are either sitting abroad or enjoying a nice cool breeze from the airconditioner in there room. YOU WOULD NOT HAVE EXISTED if Pakistan did not have a nuclear deterent. All of you who malign Pakistan or its great scientists , armed forces, doctors and engineers are ungrateful pricks. You deserve to know what slavery is. You do not respect freedom and sovriegnity. AQ khan deserves respect no matter what. This article shines the light that there are many many more we should be thankful for and respect them and give them our gratitude. Respect Pakistan, try to make it better.


  • G Indian
    Oct 14, 2012 - 12:04AM

    Nuclear technology is 70 years old. It is a big deal for the least technologically advanced countries. Advanced countries can produce nuclear weapons in few weeks if they really want to do so; whereas, third world countries struggle for decades after spending inordinate amount of money and manpower to master that technology.After India’s nuclear test, western media wrongly attributed our former president, who was actually a rocket scientist, as the father of India’s nuclear weapon, which is absolutely nonsense. He performed the role of project director of the Pokhran II testing. Actually APJ Abdul Kalam never claimed that he was a nuclear expert. Metallurgical Engineer AQ Khan’s bravado did harm Pakistan’s nuclear scientific community by causing rift among the true nuclear scientists. Westerners began to associate Pakistan’s nuclear achievement with the stolen centrifuge design blue print.

    Nuclear technology is peanuts when compared to Mars Curiosity mission.

  • Hasan
    Oct 14, 2012 - 12:15AM


    What do adequate sanitation and social justice have to do with the defence sector? I didn’t even make any mention of Hindustan’s military misadventures. However, since you choose to raise the issue, I’m surprised you forgot the crushing defeat by China in 1962, or your utter failure to capture Lahore in the botched offensive of 1965. I guess the BJP still has monopoly over the publication of history books in your part of the world. This is all off-topic, but I’m sure even the author of this article could teach you a thing or two about the glaring inadequacies of your defence industry.

    As I mentioned from the outset, the writer has every right to question the remarks of our pre-eminent nuclear scientist – I doubt the elite Brahmins and Hindutva activists across the border would dare offer the same freedoms to the hundreds and millions of poor Hindustanis who are forced to live under the world’s most skewed, disaffected democracy. Frankly any Hindustani who posts a message on this subject should first be required to fill out a drop-down menu asking them how many toilets they have built across the slums of their ‘country’.



  • Bala
    Oct 14, 2012 - 3:03AM


    I know you are trying to hijack and deflect attention from AQ Khan. Good effort …


  • bball
    Oct 14, 2012 - 12:01PM

    So he was a metalogist therefore to be relegated to lower status? brilliant! Can you answer why AK khan is called the father of Pakistan bomb? Are we pakistanis so gracious as to let someone claim this for decades? The fact is that, like any organization, atomic energy commision had many hard-working scientists/engineers/planers/administrators etc working under the leadership of AK Khan. Just like there were greater performances in the 92 world cup than that of Imran Khan. But you know what, there’s a reason why imran khan, AQ khan gets the majority of credit. And that reason is that the led the team that made it happen. That, rtd. esteamed officer, makes all the difference. That is how it’s been and that is how it will be no matter which country you are talking about.


  • Sudhir Kale
    Oct 14, 2012 - 12:57PM

    Every Pakistani, Indian & American should read the book “Nuclear Deception” by Adrian Levy & Catherine Scott-Clark. Some Pakistani should translate it in Urdu for Pakistani ‘AWAM’ just the way I have done. My Marathi translation (my mother tongue) carried out with authors’ permission was serialised on the web edition of ‘Sakal’ of Pune & received excellent reviews. I am hoping that it is published as a book.

    The book shows AQK in all his colours; good & ugly. Worth reading.

    Ms GP65: I love most of your responses.


  • Hasan
    Oct 15, 2012 - 12:16AM


    Ameen and ameen – very good post.

    Although I agree with you wholeheartedly, I don’t think it’s unfair to say that Munir Akram Khan was also national hero – just like the author of this article. Sqd Ldr (R) Haider was pivotal to repelling the numerically and technically superior Hindustani air force in September 1965, and had it not been for him, the horrors of Gujurat and Kashmir would have been visited on our own cities as well.

    Yes, we would not have existed had it not been for our nuclear scientists – but I will also stand by anything that the author has to say, since he has done as much for Pakistan as anybody could have done.



  • Junaid Jamshed
    Oct 15, 2012 - 5:41AM

    I challenge anyone who does not think AQ khan is corrupt, should just go to Islamabad and see how his ex son in law Mr N lives in super luxury, just go and ask anyone in Islamabad who is a resident can tell you of his dozens of houses, bought thanks to AQ Khans blank check when he was in charge of KRL. His daughter Dina owns several houses in Europe, how did they afford all this? and luxury fleet of cars you would not believe.

    Mr Khan allowed his son in law to sell maraging steel used in centrifuges which is very expensive …was sold as scrap metal on paper to local dealers. This metal was worth hundreds of millions of dollars.

    Then he was included in the purchase of missiles from North Korea and many other such lucrative deals.


  • mystreeman
    Oct 15, 2012 - 9:33AM

    @Junaid Jamshed:
    Ask the same questions for Generals!


  • Oct 15, 2012 - 10:55AM

    @Junaid Jamshed:
    Everyone knows of A. Q. Khan’s house in Bani Galla built in violation of the Master Plan of Islamabad. For years his house in E-7 near Faisal Masjid has remained center of curiosity for agents and journalists alike. His restaurant in Blue Area and his NGO in F-8 are but just some of his minor projects.
    The man lacks basic intelligence when it comes to seeking publicity. He forced the Faisal Masjid administration to install air-conditioners in the huge prayer hall of the Mosque when there was neither the need nor funds to pay electricity bill for their use.
    Some well known persons have cashed in on his lust for lime light. It is time for recognizing only tangible achievements and not false myths and legends knit around fake heroes.


  • goose
    Oct 15, 2012 - 3:58PM

    Which country is Hindustan??? If you are referring to India, the non-English name for her is Bharat; surely a person posing to be so knowledgeable about India should have known that??????


  • observer
    Oct 15, 2012 - 5:03PM


    Good Attempt. Aabpara Khush Hua.


  • Ashraf P
    Oct 15, 2012 - 5:13PM

    Brilliant comment !!


  • Ashraf P
    Oct 15, 2012 - 5:15PM

    One scientist (on live national television) openly admitted that the “Water-Kit” was an ingenious machine that would make Pakistan the greatest scientific power in the world. If somebody tells me that he was the “father” of the bomb, I’ll laugh.


  • Ahmed
    Oct 16, 2012 - 3:03AM

    A Q Khan was a hero and always will be. Munir and the rest no doubt capability but i was AQ khan who put all the pieces together. Enemies can rejoice in ridiculing him but he is a true hero of the nation. Ok may be he is little bit media savy and publicity hungry some scientists and engineers were Edison and Einstein for example. I don’t care if AQ khan was Kharadi from Lala Musa but he made the impossible happen which Munir and his team couldn’t do.
    So stop the whining there are millions others things that need still to be jealous ones can tackle those issues.
    Nothing in Pakistan happens without Army ‘s consent or acquiescence and if he did the proliferation it was because it was sanctioned by armed forces. What is wrong if he made a few pennies or his family benefited a bit from his reputation it is the nature of beast in Pakistan f\sovirty


  • Hasan
    Oct 16, 2012 - 4:17AM


    Utterly off-topic question – but since it bothers you so much, Hindustan was the name which Quaid-e-Azam used to refer to your country. I would sooner follow the example of the greatest statesman in the history of the subcontinent than acknowledge the angry ramblings of an internet pseud-intellectual.

    Hope that answers your question, pyara.



  • Arijit Sharma
    Oct 16, 2012 - 5:24AM

    @Sid: ” … YOU WOULD NOT HAVE EXISTED if Pakistan did not have a nuclear deterent. … ”

    This is what I do not get – why do Pakistanis think India wants to gobble them up ? Why would India want MORE Muslims to deal with ? Recommend

  • Rafia Asim
    Oct 16, 2012 - 1:48PM

    No one who had anything to do with creating nuclear weapons should be honored or praised.Recommend

  • Reality Bites
    Oct 16, 2012 - 7:01PM

    Writer is trying to confuse people. In the whole process of making a nuclear device the difficult most part is making high grade uranium, which AQ Khan managed to carryout with his team. And this process is the bottle-neck for many ambitious countries who are/were struggling to get nuclear.


  • Arijit Sharma
    Oct 16, 2012 - 9:45PM

    @Hasan: ” … Hindustan was the name which Quaid-e-Azam used to refer to your country. … “

    We normally balk being called Hindustanis because by our definition, Hindustan also included parts of British India that are now Pakistan and Bangladesh. Eeewww. Pyare.


  • sabi
    Oct 17, 2012 - 6:26AM

    @Reality Bites:
    What about syria, Iran, Libya, who attained centrifugale .i.e.enrichment technology from Khan’s network and it’s now more than two decades none of the above country succeded in converting it to nuclear bomb.


  • khurshid Ahmd
    Oct 17, 2012 - 7:25PM

    I do not understand , why we as people and nation, in spite of knowing the facts , do not have courage or morality to face the facts and facts are mentioned in the book, which is undeniable, as all the characters of the whole nuclear saga are alive , except very few.
    With all respect to Dr. A Q Khan, but please for Allah’s sake , do not make him such an icon, which he is not, yet we admire, respect and distinguish him as “ONE” of our heroes but please, do not create an idol just by beauty of a stone ……(refer to Lat o Manat in Kaba)
    Dr. A Q Khan with very little role to play could not be accredited for all the achievements of those unsung heroes like Mr Muneer and so many others. They too were sons of this soil and deserve to be appreciated and recognized for what they actually did for this country


  • Hasan
    Oct 17, 2012 - 9:10PM

    @Arijit Sharma:

    Yes I can imagine it would be horrific for you to associate yourselves with neighbouring countries, which would grossly dilute the record-breaking data that Hindustan has to brag about around AIDS, poverty, famine, disease and female infanticide. Likewise we can assure you that it’s a great loss for your neighbours to not be tagged with the same levels of infamy.

    Hindustanis make my day! :)



  • Nov 24, 2012 - 4:30PM

    p82U4m Awesome blog.Really looking forward to read more. Really Great.Recommend

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