While small players get squeezed, textile’s big guns are doing just fine

Published: August 27, 2012
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Breakdown of Pakistan’s textile exports
$ (in millions).

Breakdown of Pakistan’s textile exports $ (in millions).

FAISALABAD: 

The energy crisis has hit Pakistan’s textile industry badly, but not all textile companies are hurt: the largest players are doing just fine, relying on a combination of the advantages of their economies of scale but also government-sanctioned privileges not available to smaller industrial players.

At least part of the reason why the bigger companies are doing better than the smaller ones appears to be the natural advantages that come with being a larger player, such as having a vertically integrated business model.

Kamal Yousaf, CEO of the Kamal Group of Industries, a textile conglomerate based in Faisalabad, says that part of his group’s advantage over smaller rivals in their ability to harness synergies within the group. The weaving, processing and dyeing, garment manufacturing, and trading arms all work as a unit, helping the group weather price hikes in raw material or other issues.

The Nishat Group, meanwhile, benefits from the fact that it owns the fourth-largest bank in the country – MCB Bank – allowing it to avoid cash flow issues and raise capital for efficiency improvement projects. Nishat Textile, therefore, never has a problem in paying wages to its employees and was able to raise Rs1 billion to invest in a 6.2-megawatt power generation unit that runs on biomass. Electricity produced in this manner is expected to be about 6% more expensive than that provided by the grid, but is far more reliable at a time when Punjab’s industry is especially hampered by severe power outages that last several hours a day.

And many larger textile mills are able to purchase large stocks of raw materials that insulate them from price shocks. More than half the cost of producing a piece of clothing is often still the cost of cotton, even for some of the largest players.

Yet at least part of the advantage appears to be built in by the government. One of the biggest reasons why larger textile mills, particularly in Punjab, have been able to do well is that most have installed captive power plants that – despite operating at one-third the efficiency of the grid’s power station – are getting gas supplies to produce power at a marginally lower cost than what they would get from the grid.

However, these captive plants have been getting gas even at the expense of the rest of the grid, meaning that even while the largest and richest textile exporters save a few pennies on their production costs (power accounts for 3% of all costs for the larger firms), all of Punjab is going through massive power outages because the power plants that supply electricity to ordinary citizens and smaller industries are getting less gas, sometimes even no gas.

Meanwhile, smaller textile players have less reliable power from the grid, a supply that is made more intermittent by the fact that the fuel for the grid’s power goes to their larger textile rivals. At the same time, banks charge the smaller players higher interest rates, since they are viewed as bigger risks for not having their own captive power supply.

“The smaller guys cannot afford to run their factories on diesel generators,” said Muzammil Aslam, managing director at Emerging Economics Research.

Giving out gas connections to larger, politically connected textile companies was a policy first initiated by the Musharraf administration in the early part of the 2000s. Former president Pervez Musharraf had a mistaken belief that Pakistan’s gas reserves were plentiful, and therefore his administration gave out government-guaranteed gas supply contracts to the largest textile companies, which now continue to reap the benefits even as their smaller competitors struggle, with some even going out of business and laying off their entire workforce.

(With additional reporting by Shahram Haq in Lahore)

Published in The Express Tribune, August 27th, 2012.

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Reader Comments (4)

  • Hardliner
    Aug 27, 2012 - 10:10AM

    Hmmm… quite true……… but i must make a correction……… MCB bank cannot directly finance the operations of Nishat Mills since it is barred by law for banks to lend to their group concerns (since chances of conducting a non-arms length transaction are higher in related parties transactions)……….. as such, Nishat mills has to depend upon other banks for financing their working capital…….

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  • Ahsan Majeed
    Aug 27, 2012 - 2:53PM

    Two facts that are mentioned repeatedly in all your reports that textile gets gas at subsidized rates and textile units generate electricity at much lower efficiency then the grid is totally and completely wrong. First thing to point out is that textile units get gas at exactly the same rate( currently Rs 460/mmbtu) as WAPDA, a quick look at the tariff rates on SNGPL website would have clarified this.

    Second thing is textile generates electricity at a much higher thermal efficiency then WAPDA. All textile plants are using state of the art generator sets and almost all of them are coupled with heat recovery boilers that use the waste heat from these gensets. WAPDA units are ones using decades old technology and making highly in efficient use of the gas they are provided.

    It is true that electricity can be made more efficiently using large modern gas turbines compared to gensets being used in the textile industry, but currently that is not the case.

    I am surprised that you did even do your basic home work before writing such a detailed analysis on the state of textile industry.

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  • Farooq Tirmizi
    Aug 27, 2012 - 4:20PM

    Mr Ahsan Majeed,

    At no point do we allege that the textile sector is getting subsidised gas. Please stop creating straw man arguments.

    And secondly, we did do our homework. We had several sources on the efficiency figures of textile mills, which average between 16% and 18% efficiency levels compared to the 47% efficiency levels at the gas-fired power plants run by KESC.

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  • Ahsan Majeed
    Aug 27, 2012 - 6:04PM

    Well Mr Tirmizi,

    I read your article again and agree that you did not mention that industry is getting subsidized gas. I am sorry for this, however this has been mentioned several times on different platforms so it should have been clarified.

    Now coming to the second and more important point we are taking about WAPDA, not KESC which is a different story all together. I did second you over the fact that on a comparative scale engines are not as efficient as modern gas turbines, but we don’t have these modern gas turbines. You should not compare in house captive capacity that is physically present with some thing that doesn’t exit in this country.

    I am a very simple man and do not like to presenting complex figures. I will tell you some facts

    We are generating electricity in house and it is costing us a total of Rs 7.5 per unit. I offer you to call in a qualified eng to verify my figures.
    Considering your view that we are 3.8 times less efficient then KESC, it should be costing them Rs 2 per unit.

    Gas turbines are more efficient in fuel consumption by 15-20%(not 380%!), however some of the advantage is eaten up by the much higher capital cost and subsequent distribution costs and losses some of which are inevitable. If your figures are correct, sir, then you have solved the energy crises of Pakistan. Congratulations!

    However I for one think that it is the same kind of solution the gentleman with water car came up with!

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