Victims and beneficiaries of Partition

Published: July 27, 2012
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The writer edits a quarterly Urdu literary journal Aaj from Karachi, runs a bookshop and City Press, a small publishing house 
ajmal.kamal@tribune.com.pk

The writer edits a quarterly Urdu literary journal Aaj from Karachi, runs a bookshop and City Press, a small publishing house [email protected]

In my previous column, I tried, based on the findings of two objective and professional scholars of the history of Punjab, to point out the fact that millions of acres of  ‘new’ land was brought under cultivation, roughly between 1890s and 1930s, through the construction of one of the largest network of perennial and non-perennial irrigation in the western part of Punjab and that this was an experience not shared by any other region in South Asia. This feat of physical engineering, motivated by the needs of the colonial administration, was coupled by a huge experiment in social engineering that had a strong caste aspect. The land of all the bars or do-abs — situated between two rivers — had to be levelled as it was typically in the shape of gigantic mounds, and made cultivable.

The colonial masters knew enough about the social system here to realise that the low caste workforce at the disposal of the traditional big landowners — all belonging in most cases to upper castes — was incapable of performing this huge task because it worked on the basis of begaar, unpaid labour, and had no incentive to undertake it. Therefore, they invited the middle-caste groups traditionally involved in tilling agricultural land — Jats, Khatris and Arains among others that were given a semi-respectable title of ‘agricultural castes’ — to do this work and offered as economic incentive small packets of land, 50 to 100 acres, to them in return. This necessitated transfer of population from elsewhere in western and eastern parts of Punjab — those who were later called ‘abadkars’. The land so prepared for cultivation was declared to be ‘Crown Land’, i.e., property of the British Empire, which monopolised the sole right to allot or auction it to achieve its political and economic goals. Apart from the land that was bound to be given to these ‘agricultural castes’ to make the land usable, and emptied of the original inhabitants, the ‘Janglis’ — the remaining huge areas were either allotted to the traditional big landowners, military personnel, recruited and commissioned from the region and those who provided the colonial army with horses and materials, or auctioned to rich classes that had acquired the ability to buy land through trading in agricultural produce contracting for civil works and so on.

It is concluded from Dr Imran Ali’s research and other sources that apart from the relative empowerment of ‘agricultural castes’ located at the middle rungs of the traditional caste hierarchy, the colonial masters saw to it that the feudal system in the region got more entrenched, the Empire’s ‘war effort’ during the two world wars was fully supported through men and material and a general atmosphere of loyalty to the Empire and political quietism prevailed in Punjab, resulting in the smooth flow of grain and industrial raw material to Britain through the port at Karachi. A railway line was laid specifically for this purpose linking these new lands with the port. New mandi towns such as Lyallpur and Sargodha were brought into being to regulate the flow of the agricultural produce to local and international markets.

Even this relatively small empowerment of the middle castes was to produce interesting consequences. As shared with me by my friend and well-known Dalit activist Anoop Kheri, on the basis of his close empirical observation throughout the northern part of the subcontinent, wherever land-holdings are relatively small and owned by middle castes, the physical infrastructure is better looked after and the indicators of social progress — education, health and general upward mobility — show a better trend. On the downside, the middle caste landowners, for instance Jats in the case of Punjab, are too obsessed with the new-found improvement in their own caste and economic status to care much for the environment or the groups of unprivileged people that fall below them in caste hierarchy.

Now, keeping in view this background of the ‘creation’ of millions of acres of ‘new’ land, the dynamics of its allotment and sale by the colonial administration and the politics of identity that assumed the specific character that it did in Punjab, during the period preceding the 1947 Partition, we can begin to realise that the riots and ethnic cleansing that took place in its wake, too, had their victims and beneficiaries.

Considering the portion of the ‘new’ land that was allotted and sold to Sikhs and Hindus under different categories that may fall anywhere between 25 to 35 per cent of the total, changed hands at the time of Partition and came to Muslims; the traditional feudal landlords, the ‘old’ abadkars and the new mohajirs from what became East Punjab. It can be safely concluded that in the case of this agricultural property located in western Punjab, Sikhs and Hindus were the losers. The same goes for the huge trading interests and properties owned by Sikhs and Hindus in the region. Muslims, clearly, were the beneficiaries.

The case of terrible human suffering — mass murders, rapes, kidnappings, individual and mass suicides, forced conversions and dislocation — all three religious groups had victims as well as beneficiaries and perpetrators. It is, therefore, unwise to consider all Sikhs, Hindus or Muslims of Punjab as either victims or perpetrators. Each of these three groups is divided into these two categories.

The land and the business associated with it might have worked as a strong motive for the planning and execution of the massacres and cleansing. And, as unfortunate series of riots — between different religious, ethnic, linguistic or sectarian groups — shows, there is no such thing as ‘spontaneous’ riots or their ‘automatic’ or ‘natural’ retaliation. Each incident of mass murder, rape and looting does require some degree of planning and a band of motivated, suitably trained and armed criminals to execute it.

The motivation on the part of the planners of partition riots on our side of Punjab may very well have included the landed and other properties. This point may go some distance to explain why the scale of Partition massacres in other areas of the present Pakistan, for instance Sindh, did not match what happened in Punjab.

Published in The Express Tribune, July 28th, 2012.

 

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Reader Comments (101)

  • RS
    Jul 27, 2012 - 11:18PM

    Mr. Ajmal Kamal, main beneficiaries of partition were Urdu speaking immigrants- please go back n read history railway, telecommunication, irrigation, airline, civil service, beaucrats, army etc etc high officials post were filled/taken by Urdu speaking why? Because they were serving in British system before partition/at the time of partition they were more educated plus thanks to Mr. Liaqat Ali who showered positions to urdu speaking, unfortunately since than till now these ungreatful still consider themselves as refugees. Please stop this land lord only nonsense n tell people the facts.

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  • Hitler fan,
    Jul 27, 2012 - 11:29PM

    1857 Hidus mejority did not fight along side muslims other wise india could be a free country by 1865 and would be diffrent india today free living together every body. any way thanks to Hitler we got freedom,

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  • Babloo
    Jul 27, 2012 - 11:37PM

    Its true, that the Hindus and the Sikhs , were the most prosperous community in Western Punjab. The partition, offered an opportunity for the grabbers to grab that property under the mask of communal violence. In Eastern Punjab, the Muslims were not the prosperous community as compared to Hindus and Sikhs. The riots in Eastern Punjab were retaliatory in nature.

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  • Jul 27, 2012 - 11:37PM

    @RS: In the making of a Nation all the available skills had to be made use of. As the country improved and polarisation started taking roots in the society they might have felt pushed aside. Anyway reliable information about the past wrongs are always helpful, and the author´s effort here is really admirable.

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  • Hitler fan
    Jul 27, 2012 - 11:41PM

    @RS,
    Fully agreed they playing like jews of Europe card.

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  • Ali tanoli
    Jul 27, 2012 - 11:44PM

    The truth is Urdu speaking and Punjabi speaking are benefited by the creation of pakistan

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  • entropy
    Jul 28, 2012 - 12:04AM

    Babloo, although after British rule was established in the Punjab Hindus quickly raced ahead of Muslims in the professions, Muslims were the traditional landed gentry of Punjab. The lands that Sikhs ‘owned’ in West Punjab were lands belonging to the Muslim Jangli clans that the British illegally gifted to the Sikhs. That the Sikhs soon lost them during partition is simply justice.

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 28, 2012 - 12:14AM

    @RS:
    The Mohajirs have not been flavour of decade for long time, hence the gangster politicians in Sindh & Karachi !
    The Punjabi elite did not learn any lessons after loss of East Pakistan and went into denial mode, while the Mohajirs just watch and eventually realised that their very own dreams of migrating to the Land of Pure and broken promises of the Father of the Nation by his successors was reaching to an point of no return without their own political entity, hence the mess today !

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 28, 2012 - 12:17AM

    It should be thanks to these Urdu speaking migrants that this Country actually had some chance of success, due to their skills and ability in all spheres of life, otherwise this was going to be dead and buried Nation staring at Bankruptcy ! Not that its not staring at the later even today !

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  • RS
    Jul 28, 2012 - 12:30AM

    @Ali Tanoli
    Wrong again, punjabi’s who benefited could be counted. Urdu speaking, pahtan’s, pashtoon’s, Balochi’s n sindh’s (please visit NWF, Fata, swat valley etc) n you will see how Malik’s own not muraba’s But mountains after mountains, go Sindh you will find balochi immigrants controlling lands n same goes in above mention area’s. Unfortunately, punjabi’s are n has been choosin as a scape goats.

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  • Faraz
    Jul 28, 2012 - 12:53AM

    A most interesting and riveting analysis.
    Of course riots big and small are fuelled by a range of motivations.
    Petty feuds, the greed for loot, lust and xenophobic rage are all a part of the mix.
    And finally, a riot is like a wildfire, it is self perpetuating.

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  • Awans
    Jul 28, 2012 - 1:13AM

    The author loves to put blame on others and play the victim card. ET please stop this mess and change the topic. Recommend

  • Awans
    Jul 28, 2012 - 1:19AM

    @Ali tanoli: No Mr Tanoli it is utterly wrong. How come Punjabis can benefit when On the day of the Creation of Pakistan Punjabi was removed from Punjab and thanks to Mr Liqauat and his cronies Punjabi Language was totally removed since it was considered a threat to national unity in Pakistan. Right now Punjabi is the only language in Pakistan that has not any Official Status at all and ask any Dignified person that what is the greatest loss in his view and he will say that if someone will took your culture and language away and tore your land apart. Punjab is the only land that was divided that time and that is what happened that time. Also Mr Tanoli everyone should remember that millions were slaughtered that time and Your Hazara Community, Pakhtoon and Baloch Community were failed to even set up a Single Camp for Refugees and it were Punjabis and Sindhis who welcomed and Organized and Welcome All Migrants and your ancestors were not found on any camp at all.

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  • Naveen Singla
    Jul 28, 2012 - 1:57AM

    @Hitler fan,: your comment :

    1857 Hidus mejority did not fight
    along side muslims other wise india
    could be a free country by 1865

    Free country ? We would be back under Islamic rule. Ultimately, Hindus did kick the British out. The choice to wait for less than a hundred years to be totally free rather than accept Islamic rule was well made.

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  • dpd
    Jul 28, 2012 - 2:04AM

    Here we go again. who did what to whom? Let us put the past away and start walking forward. It happened! On both sides! Innocent lives were lost! Some became rich and some lost it all. It is time to forget and forgive. It is time to reconsile and move forward. It is time to forget all animosities. It is time for both nations to boost their economies so that poverty can be alleviated. It is time that religion comes into play, being the most compassionate and forgiving. Hatred will breed violence. Only peace in the subcontinent will bring the fruit of joy to everyone. It is the time of RAMADAAN and at same the time SHRAVAN. Both MUSLIMS and HINDUS are fasting. Fast with pure intentions. Let us educate our nations. Let us stop the ARMS race. Let us uplift our cummunities.

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  • Musa
    Jul 28, 2012 - 2:42AM

    In partition my family alone lost more than a million acres of land in Indian Punjab better known as the Mamdot estate along with the headworks at Ferozpur. My great Grandfather Nawab Shahnawaz Khan of Mamdot (pioneers of Freedom) footed the entire bill for most of the Muslim league so much so that the entire show from 22nd to the 24th of march 1940 was funded from the coffers of the Mamdot estate. Also Quaid e Azam was always a guest in Lahore at our residences. SO count all those hindus and christians and look at a million plus acres of land that we(one family) lost there are plenty more. Secondly the canals you talk about were also built by local landlords in Multan thats why most of them are named after them. This has nothing to do with the Brittish infact we have letters that barred certain families from purchasing more land and the letters were written by the Viceroy to the governor of the Punjab.
    ET what is your criterion for letting people write in your paper no cross check of any sort? to the author your sources are wrong get a grip on reality the areas which came under pakistan have always been under muslim majority rule as far as the lands are concerned. Recommend

  • Always Learning
    Jul 28, 2012 - 3:46AM

    @ RS, the writer has given facts based on research, but you do not wish to accept. You prefer your caustic prejudices over facts. RS, Mr Tanoli and Hitler fan, everyone benefited from creation of Pakistan. Let us build it in to a good and honourable country. If there are past grievances, please correct them and look ahead.

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  • Jul 28, 2012 - 4:47AM

    The tragedy of partition and irony of this method of land allocation and land grab through ethnic cleansing created the new powerful class of feudal who have extended their influence and got monopoly over policies in Pakistan. Our courts especially the Supreme Sharia court has given a legal cover to all this loot in the guise of right to own property in Islam. For Pakistan to survive there is no option but to tax the agricultural income of very big land holdings. Who will do it?

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  • Khurram
    Jul 28, 2012 - 6:33AM

    @entropy:
    Sir your lines are written in rather a bad taste. Partition of India was a sad chapter in the lives of many hard working good people and I shall not hesitate to call it a great injustice. I belong to a Muslim Rajput family that owns large tracts of agricultural land in the area where Jaanglis once used to graze their cattle, but they were not contrary to your thinking the legal owners of that land as a matter of fact Jaangli Tribes did not even own the small those patches where they had built their BARAS (enclosures). It was all Crown Land and there was nothing illegal in giving away it as a gift or selling it to the Muslim Jats, Sikhs, Arains and Khatris. I wish no one had to leave the land they worked so very hard to develop.

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  • Awans
    Jul 28, 2012 - 6:50AM

    @Hegdefunder: Hello Mister in which world are you living. During the partition Lahore was one of the the hub of Education related activities in the North Indian regions and who was living in Lahore that time??? How come whole of Pakistan was uneducated then and how it was going to be a buried nation.?? Why you people are so proud in their abilities i cannot comprehend. Treat everyone as Equal and you are not from the sky actually. My Grandfather got a Masters Degree in Science before the partition so how come people were illiterate here??. Dont try to boast yourself. Every nation can thrive and survive. My family members are all almost Punjabis and we had 7 PHDs in my family before the partition and Dr Abdus Salam was born in Jhang as well and many like him were qualified people living here and they were able to run the organizations here and nobody should say that this nation is standing because of us otherwise Jaahils will have ruined this nation away..

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  • Arijit Sharma
    Jul 28, 2012 - 7:37AM

    @entropy: ” … The lands that Sikhs ‘owned’ in West Punjab were lands belonging to the Muslim Jangli clans that the British illegally gifted to the Sikhs. That the Sikhs soon lost them during partition is simply justice. … “

    So perhaps now you can understand the Burmese stand on the Rohingya Muslims ? The Rohingyas are being driven out of land that does not belong to them.

    Now, do not tell me that just because they are Muslims, different rules apply.

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  • Khurram
    Jul 28, 2012 - 9:00AM

    @Musa: Sir since you are claiming to be a scion of Mamdot then you must be a grandson of Nawab Kutub-ud-din Khan. I am very familiar with the history of your family from the times of Nawab Sultan Khan to Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Khan. Your family never owned or possessed a million acres in Punjab or anywhere else, your land holdings were 21052 acres in total and your family I know was more than fully compensated for that loss after the Partition. I know there were some private canals and my family too owned a couple of them but these were built by the British and later turned over to the big landlords for a small sum plus a fixed rent.

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  • observer
    Jul 28, 2012 - 10:39AM

    @Hitler Fan

    1857 Hidus mejority did not fight along side muslims other wise india could be a free country by 1865

    Sir Ji,

    Please do a Google search for ,Mangal Pande, Tatya Tope, Kuer Singh, Laxmi Bai and surprise yourself.

    Next, read any good Book on 1857 (I recommend The Last Mughal by William Dalrymple) to learn how some people turned 1857 into a Jihad against all infidels.

    Since you are a fan of Hitler, I am sure you are well aware of Goebels and his methods too.

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  • Ghauri Sultan Suri
    Jul 28, 2012 - 11:41AM

    As Shakespeare said: “A pox on them all…” Why can we not learn to live as equal human beings? That is what all prophets proclaimed.

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  • Realist
    Jul 28, 2012 - 11:55AM

    @RS: Mention a few history books you read and based ur opinion on.

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  • Realist
    Jul 28, 2012 - 12:02PM

    @Awans:

    How did Lahore got all those educational institutions, Punjabi occupied 80% of Raj and Pak Military? If they were ever a martial race, how come they were invaded by every of foreign invader. Why couldn’t then Punjab produce second to Ranjeet Sing?

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  • Mohammad Akram Virk
    Jul 28, 2012 - 12:06PM

    What a waste of time to create hatered among the people of Pakistan. It looks the author has a hidden agenda against Pakistani Nation. What was the objective of such useless and biased ideas. Just ignore this wisdom and stay as a Pakistani, whereever you are. This whole country is for all Pakistanies. Let us be together agaist hatered, Jahalat and Corruption.

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  • Zeeshan
    Jul 28, 2012 - 12:50PM

    @Arijit Sharma,

    “@entropy: ” … The lands that Sikhs ‘owned’ in West Punjab were lands belonging to the Muslim Jangli clans that the British illegally gifted to the Sikhs. That the Sikhs soon lost them during partition is simply justice. … “
    So perhaps now you can understand the Burmese stand on the Rohingya Muslims ? The Rohingyas are being driven out of land that does not belong to them.
    Now, do not tell me that just because they are Muslims, different rules apply.”

    So you were saying Hindu and Sikh were driven from the land which never belonged to them in the first place?

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  • Zeeshan
    Jul 28, 2012 - 1:10PM

    “The land and the business associated with it might have worked as a strong motive for the planning and execution of the massacres and cleansing. “

    This sounds more like a Marxist reading of the past. Shouldn’t this reading of the past also looked at why there was Hindu Mohalla and Muslim Mohalla in this supposed harmonious city pre-1947?

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  • Zeeshan
    Jul 28, 2012 - 1:19PM

    @Realist,

    The category “martial race” was manufactured by the British post-1857. Hence, it was not a native opinion. To reduce Ranjit Singh as a sole “defender” from “invaders” is nothing short of a tenditious reading of the history of Punjab. The Multanis were also known to resist that “Punjab-born” man.

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  • External Hand
    Jul 28, 2012 - 2:13PM

    Pakistan was created for and by the Muslim landholding elite of undivided India, who were scared of losing their vast land holdings after independence. Remember that the Congress initiated sweeping land reforms in India in the 50s that ended zamindari and empowered the poor landless farmer. In Pakistan, no such thing happened.

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  • entropy
    Jul 28, 2012 - 2:47PM

    Khurram

    I belong to a Muslim Rajput family
    that owns large tracts of agricultural
    land in the area where Jaanglis once
    used to graze their cattle, but they
    were not contrary to your thinking the
    legal owners of that land as a matter
    of fact Jaangli

    The Muslim jangli clans I was referring to are the Virk and Kharral Jatts and the Bhatti Rajputs. These clans are the traditional landed gentry of the region, especially the Kharrals. Most of the former Sikh controlled Jangli lands were awarded after partition to East Punjabi Rajput and Arain refugees. Most awards were quite small and no one owns ‘large tracts’ of land

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  • Awans
    Jul 28, 2012 - 2:52PM

    @Realist: Go and check out the History my friend. Punjabis have a history to defend their land. The only time they were deceived were by own Muslim Brothers on the name of Islam otherwise they always defended that land. The ultimate battles in the history thousands of years ago was actually fought in Punjab on the river Jhelum and at that time Alexander said that he never met such a great King in all his Campaign and go and check out history books why Alexander have to go back from Punjab,. The land of Punjab have thousands of years of history to honor their dignity. Dont think that by Respecting the Muslims and heding to them we were weak but we were manipulated on the name of religion and still it is going on like that.
    A small history lesson for you that what the inhabitants of this land did when they were Attacked. Porus was the King of Potohar regions upto Jhelum Punjab regions and look how did he fought Alexander,
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_ZZog59Up0&feature=related

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  • Waleed
    Jul 28, 2012 - 2:53PM

    @Khalid Pathan
    Well articulated. We need land reform with utmost urgency. My opinion is we do not do anything about feudalism it will lead to talibinisation of our country.

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 28, 2012 - 2:54PM

    @Musa:
    Ever thought as to how your Grandfather would have viewed the current state of Pakistan ?
    In what light, would he have viewed it, do you honestly think that he would have been pleased as to the outcome of his original dream ?

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  • Ket
    Jul 28, 2012 - 3:12PM

    @RS It was all fine up until feudals assasinated Liaqat Ali. Urdu speaking at the time knew how to run a state’s affairs. Now no one does.

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 28, 2012 - 3:35PM

    @Musa:
    In partition my family alone lost more than a million acres of land in Indian Punjab

    Do you even know what million acre means ?
    Please don’t exaggerate your family’s holdings !

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 28, 2012 - 3:39PM

    @Awans:
    Where did i suggest anything to what you suggesting?
    What i am stating is the fact that Majority of the migrants were well establish people in their own trades and services, hence they were in Majority in the civil service of the new nation !

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  • jagjit sidhoo
    Jul 28, 2012 - 3:45PM

    @Musa: Thank god we do not have any one owning or claiming to own more than a million acres of land in India.

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  • jagjit sidhoo
    Jul 28, 2012 - 3:48PM

    @Khurram: I always find your comments to be amongst the more moderate ones, may your tribe grow.

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  • M. Ahmed
    Jul 28, 2012 - 4:13PM

    The British broke into India from Bengal (Calcutta now Kolkata) and caused all the upheavel and massacre. Why turn the matter into a Punjabi-Mohajir controversy.

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  • Faraz
    Jul 28, 2012 - 4:20PM

    The only real example of meaningful and comprehensive land reform in India was in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
    I am glad that we acceded to India because those reforms would not have happened if we had acceded to Pakistan.
    The absolute absence of bonded labour, destitute and landless peasantry and feudalism in the Kashmir of today is in stark contrast to the situation that prevailed during the rule of the Dogra Maharajas.
    Rural Kashmir and its 3500 crore fruit economy is the mainstay of the finances of the state.
    What is amazing about this situation is the fact that the erstwhile ‘plebians’ and landless peasants are true and major stakeholders in this economy. The ‘erstwhile’ patricians are so only in name.
    The rest of the subcontinent needs to learn from us.

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  • Jpy
    Jul 28, 2012 - 5:06PM

    If you go thro the history books like “Freedom at Midnight” or any other contemparary authors you can find the following points. Muslim League was never a serious contentor in the Indian freedom struggle. Except of a few muslims in the congress the majority of the muslims never actively participated in the freedom struggle. But when it became clear that India will get independance then only the Muslim League under the leadership of Jinnah started serious negotiations for a separate state for the muslims. Two Nation theory was implimented only because of the arrogance & mistakes of some leaders of Indian National Congress who always wanted some upper hand

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  • External Hand
    Jul 28, 2012 - 5:09PM

    @ Faraz: “The only real example of meaningful and comprehensive land reform in India was in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.”

    Yes, this is historically correct. Much credit for this must go to Sheikh Abdullah and his deputy Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad, along with – of course – Nehru.

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  • Faraz
    Jul 28, 2012 - 6:09PM

    @External Hand:
    You forgot to mention Mirza Aslam Beg. He was the brains behind the plan and quite uncharacteristically for a subcontinental, he started with his own estate by distributing his landholdings at Sarnal among the peasantry.

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 28, 2012 - 6:21PM

    @Jpy:
    Yes , one of the best books on the subject ! Do note that Gandhiji actually had fore vision and hence was prepared to let Jinnah take the helm of independant India as a whole rather then the break up, yet there were some novices and its due to them that this situation occured ! The rest is History.

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  • Khurram
    Jul 28, 2012 - 6:48PM

    @Jpy: Partitioning of India on the basis of religion was the ultimate menifestation of the British policy of Divide and Rule. The rest is History open to many subjective interpretations.

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  • Musa
    Jul 28, 2012 - 7:38PM

    @ Khurram

    I can only laugh at your stupidity you are saying the entire area of jalalabad and firozpur was just 21000 acres ahahah you are delusional. I am not the grandson of Kutub Ud Din Khan, my paternal sides are the the Khakwanis and at the time of partition my great grandfather Nawab Hafiz Khuda Bakh Khan Khakwani owned something like 40000+ acres so go do your research some more before you come and throw stupid facts at me. Secondly the mamdots were compensated 1000 acres in Iqbal Nagar in mian channu dist. even in your terms thats not a fair transfer since you claim they lost 21000 acres hahaha. Sir Mamdot was the largest muslim owned land in the subcontinent maybe you would like to read a couple of books or rather just go and look at the dist gazetter.
    SO stop acting, Mamdot had 84 chakook in it and each chak has something like 400 squares of land called murrabbay and each murrabba is 25 acres… according to you the Mamdot riasat was based on less than a 1000 squares hahahah you are an imbicile.. I wish people like you would do some research before opening that mouth of yours. There were 11 train stations that spanned the Mamdot estate my child!! Please when we speak here we speak with facts and not just some ramblings that come into our head.Recommend

  • Musa
    Jul 28, 2012 - 7:42PM

    @khurram

    Also the canals that I am talking about were built before the brittish they were built when the Khakwanis ruled Multan around 1752. So please again check your facts all these areas were deserts which were made into fertile land by the Grace of Allah and our hard work. So grow up and get some facts!! and you are not familiar with my family so dont claim to be either for the sake of an argument.!!!Recommend

  • Musa
    Jul 28, 2012 - 7:46PM

    @jagjit sidhoo

    Maybe if you procreated less there would be people with larger landholdings, but you are the one to talk. Your country has 682 million people living on less than a dollar a day and you are the one to talk. You have more poverty in India than the entire continent of Africa and sir these are figures of Asian Development Bank so go argue with them.

    Also @ Khurram nice to see you found a sikh to back you up… you both need history lessons, or maybe you are both beyond help!!
    May Allah give you guidanceRecommend

  • Musa
    Jul 28, 2012 - 7:48PM

    @hedgefunder i know better than anyone what they looked like… on a map it is the area beginning from Kasur going all the way to Jalalabad India, named after Nawab Jalal Ud Din Khan of Mamdot, so you go to maps.google.com and you will also get to know what they look like foo!!!

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  • Musa
    Jul 28, 2012 - 7:52PM

    @hedgefunder My great grandfather would have been sad to see ungrateful people such as yourself, but then again you never mattered to him then and you wouldnt have mattered now. He did what was best for the Muslims of India, incase you doubt that maybe you can take a look at how muslims live in india and then come and talk to me about this again, about how muslims(even famous actors) arent allowed to buy land in big cities like mumbai what to talk of smaller towns.
    So stop being ungrateful and stop putting your faults on those of your fore fathers.. Pakistan was never a fault.Recommend

  • Musa
    Jul 28, 2012 - 8:06PM

    Multan was a part of Afghanistan till 1818 when it was annexed by Ranjit singh and made a part of Punjab.. so read the entire history before you start commenting!!
    No was land was given to us by the brittish the Khakwanis and the Mamdots had states long before the brittish even heard of India. SO go get some real facts!!

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  • Anonymous
    Jul 28, 2012 - 8:17PM

    @Khalid Pathan:
    Sir tax every thing. In Germany they tax income of sex worker and charge them extra for standing on curb. Don’t single out any source of income.please in future rephrase that all income irrespective of source needs to be taxed. No exemption.

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  • Anonymous
    Jul 28, 2012 - 8:27PM

    @Awans:
    Dear sir
    This is colonist mind set. With due apologies Punjabies and Urdu speaking thought same thing of bengalies. But are they doing well without your help? They have their language intact, have every thing of their own without your contribution.
    Sindh was part of bombay presidency . After 40 years of struggle they got separate provincial status. In next 13 years they were able to establish university, medical, engineering and law college on their own. So if no Urdu speaking have come progress would have continued.
    Look what is happening in India, our undu speaking brothers face fallen behind untouchables and will become worse as time goes on

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 28, 2012 - 8:37PM

    So you are suggesting that all that was your family’s land ?
    Well i notice an comment that actually points out to the exact amount of land that your family had, which is in thousands of acres , but certainly not in the region million acre ! The comment by Khurram is the one i am refering to, as you have not responded to defend your statement. Incidently, at present in today’s Pakistan, How much of this land is left in your family’s holding?

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 28, 2012 - 8:45PM

    @Khurram:
    Partitioning of India on the basis of religion was the ultimate menifestation of the British policy of Divide and Rule.

    Sadly i have to disagree with you there ! Yes, the British always had an concept of divide and rule, however in relation to Partition, it was Jinnah and his newly formed Muslim League, which played the religion card, and actually set the ball rolling to that effect.
    The British never had an notion of this prior to that, as Radcliffe was not appointed by Mountbatton or London till the eleventh hour to simply come in and draw an line, without having any clue as to the local culture or traditions or even understanding geographic of the region to which he put a line across and the impact of that decision on millions of lives in the region !

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  • Musthaq Ahmed
    Jul 28, 2012 - 8:50PM

    @Faraz:
    Sir, Your few lines contain the gist of logic that went into enthusiasm for Pakistan.

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  • Musa
    Jul 28, 2012 - 8:55PM

    @hedefunder I did respond ET is moderating it!! so lets wait for them to moderate it and you will get the answer!

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  • Musa
    Jul 28, 2012 - 9:01PM

    @hedgefunder it had 84 chakook and 11 train stations in it 21052 acres are not 84 chakkook and 11 train stations.. Khurrams answer is all wrong and without any proof or basis.. The lands the Mamdots controlled were before the brittish!!

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  • Musa
    Jul 28, 2012 - 9:06PM

    @hedgefunder its a fact you can look it up in history books.. the exact amount of land.. my family has Alhamdolillah land ranging in thousands of acres as we speak so mr Khurram is just wrong!!

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  • Sindhi man.
    Jul 28, 2012 - 9:12PM

    @Hitler fan,
    Hitler was good india got freedom but he was worst for Sindhis, and Palestinian we got problem of jews and Muhajirs forever.

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  • Zeeshan
    Jul 28, 2012 - 9:23PM

    @ External hand,
    “Pakistan was created for and by the Muslim landholding elite of undivided India, who were scared of losing their vast land holdings after independence. Remember that the Congress initiated sweeping land reforms in India in the 50s that ended zamindari and empowered the poor landless farmer. In Pakistan, no such thing happened.”

    I see this myth being perpetuated again and again by mostly Indians on an agrarian society like Punjab. Was that also a reason for Kashmiris and Bengalis who support Pakistan?

    To praise Congress for discarding the “zamindari systen” is a bit rich given how quick Indians blamed Congress for vote bank and dynastic rule. Maybe India was created for the Gandhis?

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  • Faisal
    Jul 28, 2012 - 9:24PM

    @hedgefunder you dont know Musa or Khurram how come you believe one over the other? I suggest you consult history books or dist gazetters.. the real answer will be there for all to see!!

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  • Faisal
    Jul 28, 2012 - 9:32PM

    @khurram you must be a Brittisher to have known what they were thinking at that time also you must be like a 100 years old in which case are you sure you arent senile?

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  • Million Acre Ranch owner Ramta
    Jul 28, 2012 - 10:11PM

    @musa
    the area beginning from Kasur going all the way to Jalalabad India
    Jalalabad in Ferozpur is about 8 Kms away from the India-Pakistan border,so according to your statement most of your land holding should be in Pakistan.Please use GMaps before advising others.

    Don’t tell me your were talking about Jalalabad in Uttar Pradesh O_O

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  • Faisal Habib
    Jul 28, 2012 - 11:47PM

    @khurram
    Ghulam Mustafa Khars father had 30000 so i’m pretty sure your stats on the acreage of the mamdot estate is wrong and Musa is probably closer to it if not exactly on the correct number just saying.

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 29, 2012 - 12:34AM

    @Musa:
    Until your last comment , i thought you were intelligent person ! What do you know about the Muslims in India ? What do you know Mumbai and your views about not being able to buy land ! Have you ever been there? Have you just checked on the Muslim actors and their properties in Mumbai, have also checked as to other states where muslims still hold their assets from time of parttion without hindrence ?
    Rest assure, Muslims in India are likely to be in far better position than in Pakistan, had that not been the case, i am sure that Pakistan Consulates would have long queues of people daily to migrate to Pakistan ! But that is not the case, so i suggest as you are a person of wealth and standing, that you assist your people in whatever fields of their lives you can, as God knows they need it too ! Otherwise the leaders of your country would not have made a practice of globe trotting to beg for AID !

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  • Musa
    Jul 29, 2012 - 2:53AM

    @million acre ranch owner
    Not only our lands but also Kashmir, Junagadh, and hyderabad were supposed to come here, but since at the time of partition we did not have an army the indian army under the command of the viceroy took over the lands that had been given to Pakistan in the Radcliffe award.
    So yes the present India Pakistan border is not what had been decided, maybe you can go and do some research!
    The border was decided to be 20+ kms into what india has so yes they should have been in Pakistan as decided. But the baniya reneged and cheated with the brittish no wonder mountbatten stayed on as their viceroy since they had no issue with the brits in the first place as it was just a change of masters for them. Guess mountbatten got what he deserved!!
    ALso the headworks for all the eastern rivers in firozpur were to be part of pakistan as well as a military complex along with a certain amount of cash(which was given to us the cash I mean because gandhi protested) the rest are still pending in the UN ofcourse a redundant organization!! Recommend

  • Musa
    Jul 29, 2012 - 3:00AM

    @million acre also deccan hyderabad if i missed it earlier was supposed to come to us as the Nizam wanted to be alligned with Pakistan!!

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  • Musa
    Jul 29, 2012 - 3:13AM

    @million acre dude

    Your statement is confusing maybe you dont know what you are talking about or you didnt read any of the above comments but just decided to jump in when you have no idea what is going on in which case you are highly irresponsible person!!

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  • Abdur Rahman
    Jul 29, 2012 - 6:33AM

    @Zeeshan
    Very well said my friend!!!

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  • jagjit sidhoo
    Jul 29, 2012 - 6:48AM

    @Musa: These were my comments “Thank god we do not have any one owning or claiming to own more than a million acres of land in India”.I still am grateful to god that we do not have anyone owning or claiming to own more than a million acres , we are a poor country with a large population and a low GDP we can not afford to let anyone of our citizens have these luxuries to my thinking it would be abhorrent and obscene . Maybe a rich country like Pakistan with a small population and a high GDP can afford to let one family have these luxuries . I am not a communist by a long shot just one who believes in a more humane distribution of wealth with equal opportunities for all.

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  • Ajmal Kamal
    Jul 29, 2012 - 8:27AM

    “In case of agricu­ltural proper­ty locate­d in wester­n Punjab, Sikhs & Hindus were losers, Muslim mohaji­rs benefi­ciarie­s.”
    This highlight belongs to the editor of my piece, not to me.

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  • Jul 29, 2012 - 12:04PM

    The writer has selected a useless, needless, disliked subject for his article. Leave it, who were the
    beneficiaries of the partition? Broadly speaking all Muslims have been the beificiaries of creation of
    Pakistan. Muslims survival under Hindu dominated land was and is, impossible may be Urdu speaking
    Sindhis, and sindhi speaking sindhis, Panjabis, saraikis, pukhtoons Baluchis, kashmiris who snatched
    freedom fromEnglish samraj and at the same time from Hindu samraj. I am at least sure that if we acted
    accordingto our enemies’ desires/conspiracies we can mislay our freedom somewhat enjoy at present.
    We all ordinary citizens will have to resist and overpower the snakes around us.

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 29, 2012 - 1:27PM

    @Musa:
    How could Pakistan have made any success of several small land locked swatches of land into viable State ? They could not even maintain nor manage a large chunk previously known as East Pakistan !
    Mountbatton did not stay on as viceroy , but was appointed as Governor General !
    Please get your facts right, I am sure you are well educated, as i have read up a bit on your family history, so please don’t be selective and state the facts, however unpleasant as they may be !
    God only know that this partition was always going to be a mess, and no doubt that even the British did not visualise at the time as to the future consequences of their actions to please few upstart English educated Lawyers turned politicians, whose self interest took precedence over the welfare of millions !
    In regards to Kashmir , well the case can be argued by both parties, as the Hari Singh did not want to acknowledge the reality and was eventually cornered so finally signed into Indian Union, yet the majority of population was Muslim, hence the drama for past six decades ! Also India had a wrong PM at the time in form of Nehru, who was a Kashmiri Pandit and his emotional attachments took over the rational at the time.
    Today it would be political disaster for any Govt of india to even consider any other options in relation to Kashmir !

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  • Musa
    Jul 29, 2012 - 5:18PM

    @hedgefunder
    I always knew you were an indian commenter trying t o spread your agenda. Please ET ban indians from commenting on pakistani news channel. They try to hide and seek discontent amongst us by writing stuff made in their brains or their masters the research and analysis wing. This is a pakistani news channel indians IP’s should not be allowed to comment here.
    @ ET
    They are using it to create unrest amongst the pakistanis… 99% of whom dont care for land reforms. Look at the US such a huge swath of land and their entire contribution is less than 5%. We need to make schools land is not the issue the issue here is uneducated people. A small statistic the graduates from MIT in the US are responsible for $240bn in exports per year. so stop creating discontent and please please for the love of God promote harmony amongst the Pakistanis and education. Focus everything on education start from the primary level going on up.Recommend

  • Abdur Rahman
    Jul 29, 2012 - 5:49PM

    @ Hedgefunder

    Do we need to remind you of Gujarat, Assam, Kashmir? seems like the muslims are flourishing there!!

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  • Khurram
    Jul 29, 2012 - 6:00PM

    @Musa: I had sent an appropriate and curteous response to your comments backed up by all the hard facts about Mamdot Family busting most of the myths and controversies you are trying so hard to perpatuate but to my utter disappointment The Express Tribune’s editorial staff did not post it

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  • Khurram
    Jul 29, 2012 - 6:14PM

    @Hedgefunder: I had responded to your comment explaining why the British worked behind the scenes to divide India before leaving it. But it was also not posted by ET’s Editorial Staff.

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  • Khurram
    Jul 29, 2012 - 6:36PM

    @Faisal: No I am not a British but I wish I were a hundered years old then I would have been an eye-witness to most of the events we are dicussing here on ET. I am a few days short of my 31st birthday and an engineering graduate from a well known institute of technology. The two events in the Indo-Pak history have always fascinated me the most, are Mutiny of 1857 and The Partition of 1947. I inherited my grandfather’s very well stocked library with numerous titles on both of the subjects and I added few more later on.

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 29, 2012 - 6:47PM

    @Musa:
    I don’t vote nor pay taxes in India as i don’t reside their nor carry dual nationality !
    I pay my taxes in UK, and be thankful as lot of our money comes to Pakistan in form of Educational Grants to rebuild schools destroyed by the idiots who want to deprieve education to Girls in your Country.
    For your info UK ‘s Educational & other Aid to Pakistan in 2011 was over £200 million according DFID. Do note this is AID, not Loan ! From the Taxpayers of UK !
    Out of interest does ET belong to your family’s portfolio of assets ? If not, please keep your opinion about others partcipation to your self, as its an open forum ! Recommend

  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 29, 2012 - 7:09PM

    @Khurram:
    Thank you my good man, i know the mods are working overtime on this issue.

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 29, 2012 - 7:12PM

    @Faisal:
    Please rest assure i do not know either, but the reality of some one owning million acres is always questionable unless they were the Last Mughals, who the British forgot about !

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  • entropy
    Jul 29, 2012 - 7:17PM

    jagjit sidhoo

    I still am grateful to god that we do
    not have anyone owning or claiming to
    own more than a million acres , we are
    a poor country with a large population
    and a low GDP we can not afford to let
    anyone of our citizens have these
    luxuries to my thinking it would be
    abhorrent and obscene .

    ‘abhorrent’ and ‘obscene’ are exactly the words my British friends use to describe the sight of Delhi roads lined with the poor and the starving while brand spanking new Bentleys and BMWs flow past them. I don’t think this was your best moment on ET.

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  • Musa
    Jul 29, 2012 - 7:45PM

    @Khurram

    Why is it that what you state is a hard fact and what i state is a myth? are you sure you arent a hypocrit?

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  • Ashutosh
    Jul 29, 2012 - 8:05PM

    @entropy:
    Just for your information, the area from lahor to Peshawar was ruled by the Sikhs. The British faought the Sikhs and defeted them to grab, what is mostly Pakistan now.
    .
    Just for your information as mostly the text books in Pakistan are not reliable …

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  • Musa
    Jul 29, 2012 - 8:57PM

    @khurram

    What i know and is a fact is that Punjab as it stands in Pakistan is mosty due to the Mamdots, I support my claim from the results of the elections before partition. Considering the last one which was led by the Mamdots in which AIML made significant gains. Now this is a fact written by historians from all sides.

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  • jagjit sidhoo
    Jul 29, 2012 - 9:27PM

    @Khurram: Wise for a young man of 31

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  • Khurram
    Jul 29, 2012 - 9:45PM

    @Musa: Sir first of all I must tell you that I do not hold any grudge against you or anyone else on a personal level because I do not even know you or Mamdots although when I was in school in Lahore there were some Mamdots there too. Now to answer your question, the HARD FACTS are always beyond any dispute and are available at more than one place in the official documents such as revenue records and gazettes can be easily verified. My comments were based upon them. What is MYTH a traditonal story about supernatural, bigger than life ancecestors,their deeds and possessions, your statements were a product an active imagination combined with overstatements of certain facts. You are free to call me anything you wish to but that would not alter the truth that Mamdot family never possessed a Million Acres an estate of 1562.5 Square Mile area in Ferozpur and with this I also rest my case.

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  • jagjit sidhoo
    Jul 29, 2012 - 10:23PM

    @entropy: The last part of my comment was” I am not a communist by a long shot just one who believes in a more humane distribution of wealth with equal opportunities for all.” From your comments i sense that you are Pakistani in Britain. I agree with your British friends that the sights of disparity in urban India are” abhorrent and obscene” , however even in this extreme disparity there is a freedom (very limited but it is there) in choosing your employer,whom you want to vote for(even selling your vote) and in case you feel strongly enough getting your kids a primary education. However none of these very limited freedoms are available in a rural set up where the zamindar is your lord and master and your family is tied to the zamindar family for generations with no scope for getting away. I know the difference between the rural and the urban setup as we as a family have undergone this transformation ( in the 1930s my grandfather had 40 acres in those days that was not much as the yields were low) from a rural lower income family to a urban( we sold our village land) family which has moved up (just on education) to the upper middle class some might even say rich bracket.None of this would have been possible if my forefathers had been serfs on a million acre plantation. Watch this video at .36 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uagWhdragdg and read this article http://tribune.com.pk/story/411393/panchayat-raj-and-a-woman-stoned/ to understand the type of control the landlords exercise over their serfs. Disparities in both cases are “abhorrent and obscene ” but in the urban case there is a slim chance of your getting out but in the rural case you are stuck.

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 29, 2012 - 11:10PM

    @Musa:
    Are you by any chance related to the Sharif Brothers ? As from my side of pond it is them, that rule Punjab and carry all the political clout mainly in that region today !
    Living in past granduer, neither helps nor solves any problems, rest assure i speak from experiance.
    As i was born in Uganda, and shipped to UK for schooling and all of sudden in 1972, a disaster happened and Amin, expelled all asians from the country with 20 kg of luggage !
    So i know, what it feels like to loose everything and my parents having to restart again, do note i was 12 yrs old at the time, but already residing in boarding school in UK !
    Rest assure that we too were regarded as one of the top five economic families in the country at the time . We have moved on and Uk is our base and home country too.

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  • Hegdefunder
    Jul 29, 2012 - 11:19PM

    @Khurram:
    hear ! Hear ! Young man , bravo to you . This is not about being Indian, Pakistani or someone else !
    Its about facts ! Period .

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  • Lala Gee
    Jul 30, 2012 - 1:16AM

    @Ajmal Kamal:

    “In case of agricu­ltural proper­ty locate­d in wester­n Punjab, Sikhs & Hindus were losers, Muslim mohaji­rs benefi­ciarie­s.”
    This highlight belongs to the editor of my piece, not to me.

    What difference it makes? The editor didn’t put his/her own words, you wrote them.

    @Khurram:

    “Mamdot family never possessed a Million Acres an estate of 1562.5 Square Mile area in Ferozpur “

    I don’t know how much holding Mamdot family possessed but 1562.5 Square Miles is a tiny area of less than 40×40 miles considering the size of undivided Punjab and of a size of a coin on a wall sized map of the Subcontinent.

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  • Musa
    Jul 30, 2012 - 4:31PM

    @khurram

    Considering there are around 10 male Mamdot descendants of the Nawab of Mamdot Shahnawaz khan highly unlikely you went to school with any of them and yes they did posses possibly more land. There is a clip from the Express Tv channel with Javed choudhry and i’ll try and find it and post it so you can have it from his ET’s own TV channel!!Show me a dist gazetter from firozpur?I suggest you hear the following clip from Javed Chaoudhry from express news.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6FiQJM60UfA

    All those who doubt my familys history please hear this!! not my words but the words of an anchor on express channel. So if anything I am understating my families contributions my dear child. Also keep your money we dont need aid you can take it and stuff it.also a wikipedia article about Firozpur

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firozpur_district

    Where are your so called facts boy?!!? Accoring to just Wikipedia firozpur dist which was part of the Mamdot estate was based on 11,142 km². Therefor the Mamdot estate was far larger than that, please again read facts or state them so far so you have only stated your opinion which is contrary to the truth.

    @lala jee very well said on both accounts.

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  • kaalchakra
    Jul 30, 2012 - 4:54PM

    What happened to Musa was very unjust. The wages of injustice are never good.

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  • Faisal
    Jul 30, 2012 - 4:55PM

    @hedgefunder

    So Amin expelled asians and somehow your family didnt come back to asia but rather went to the UK to start over? right!!
    you are delusional old man.. going through mid life crisis? writing on a rival countries website will not help your case go out and do and achieve something.

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  • Khurram
    Jul 30, 2012 - 9:40PM

    @Musa: You know what! I was wrong, just found out Mamdots actually owned two and a half million acre estate with sixteen train stations and two airports with long runways to accomodate the heavies.

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  • Musa
    Jul 30, 2012 - 11:35PM

    @ Khurram

    I expected such a reply from an ignorant person!
    I dont know why i wasted so much time on a person like yourself.. Recommend

  • Khurram
    Jul 31, 2012 - 5:40AM

    @Musa:
    Scratching my head, am I missing something here?. You called me an ignorant when I refused to agree with your statement and finally when I came around and accepted your facts you again called me an ignorant. May I know as to what do you truly want to hear from me?

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  • Aug 5, 2012 - 2:03PM

    I can say,since time immemorial, only Rajputs were true owners of all lands in S.Asia.Now they may follow any fath,Islam,Hinduism Or Sikhism.All other communities became land owning later.

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