The National Commission for Justice and Peace (NCJP) a peace and human rights body, has released material on the issue of 'Religious Discrimination in Education Policy' and Syllabus, including specimens from Punjab text books.
According to the NCJP, the curriculum and education policy in Punjab and generally whole of Pakistan disregards Article 22 of the Constitution "when it comes to hundreds of thousands of non-Muslim students attending schools in the province."
The commission has also proposed that any material considered ‘inflammatory’ or ‘discriminatory’ to religious minorities be removed from the syllabus.
Specimens of hate material identified by NCJP
Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore
Subject: URDU (Mery Kitab)
Code: April 2009 - CLASS: 03
Lesson: Hamary Rehnma (Our leaders)
(Page 57/line 14) “Englishmen and Hindus both were against the independence of Pakistan”
(Page 57/line 16) “… They failed the conspiracy of Englishmen and Hindus”
Subject: URDU (Mery Kitab)
Code: XLVII/AV - CLASS: 04
Lesson: Minar e Pakistan ki Kahani (A story of Minar e Pakistan)
(Page 23/line 13 – 15) “Hindus will not allow Islamic rule after Englishmen leaves. They will not allow such God’s rule but instead of Hindus laws and where Muslims would be socially discriminated”
(Page 23/line 06) “Englishmen and Hindu were already against the Muslims”
Subject: Social Studies
May 2009, First Edition - CLASS: 05
Lesson: Islami Jemhoriya Pakistan (Islamic Republic of Pakistan)
(Page 02/ line 01-04) “The creeds of Muslims and Hindus are totally different. Hindus have many gods and idols, whereas Muslims believe in one God, who is the creator of this Universe and Muslims worship Him. Hindu religion has divided human beings in different castes and women have not dignity.”
(Page 02) Whole text of this page is based on hatred against the Hindus.
(Page 02/line 21) “Hindus opposed the independence of Pakistan.”
(Page 02/line 22-23) “Hindus never accepted the independence of Pakistan.”
(Page 03/line 08-09) “The Hindu king of Kashmir planned a conspiracy along with other Hindus.”
(Page 03/ Para - Freedom war of Kashmiris 1948) This entire paragraph is based on hatred and twists the history.
(Page 03/ Para - War of September 1965) This entire paragraph is based on hatred and twists the history.
(Page 04/line 05 – 06) “India started provoking the people and leaders of East Pakistan against West.”
(Page 04/line 15) “Raja Heri Singh, a cruel Hindu ruler of Kashmir.”
(Page 05/line 23) “Enemies of Islam.”
(Page 77/line 07 - Muhammad Bin Qasim) “Many Hindus converted to Islam.”
(Page 77/line 22) “Hindus of Sindh were voluntarily embracing Islam.”
Code: XLVII/AL - CLASS: 05
Lesson: Karardad e Pakistan (Resolution of Pakistan)
(Page 19/line 10) “The Englishmen through a conspiracy in 1857…”
(Page 19/ line 15) “Soon after the resolution was passed, the Hindus kicked up a row of hatred.”
Lesson: Hazrat Amam Jafer Sadiq (Jafar Sadiq, the Superior leader)
(Page 32/line 12) “From hiding the infidels...”
(Page 32/line 13-14) “A selfish Jew was the owner of a well and he never allowed Muslims to take water from it.”
(Page 56/line 05) “Do you like it that we remain under these infidels and our next generation lives as their slaves.”
(Page 56/line 10) “Many infidels lost their lives.”
Code: XLVII/AL - CLASS: 06
Lesson: Sultan Silahudin Ayubi (King Silahudin Ayubi)
(Page 30, 31, 32) Word “Kafir/infidel” is used frequently.
(Page 31/line 19 – 22) The entire paragraph against Christians/Christianity.
Lesson: Musads e Hali
(Page 15/line 7- 8) Shows map of barbarianism (Before arrival of Islam).
Subject: SOCIAL STUDIES
Code: XLVII/AL - CLASS: 07
Lesson: Islam sy pehly Arab muashry ki halat (The situation of pre Islamic society)
(Page 07 – 14) The whole chapter is based on religious hatred.
Code: XLVII/AL - CLASS: 08
Ek azeem din (A great day)
(Page 58/line 23) “Hindus declared the independence of Pakistan a dream of insane person.”
Code: XLVII/AL - CLASS: 09
Rasool e Akram (PBUH) k Ikhlaq (The Ethics of Holy Prophet PBUH)
(Page 03/line 04) “Women remained degraded in pre-Islamic period.”
Code: XLVII/AL - CLASS: 10
Lesson: Nazriya e Pakistan (Ideology of Pakistan)
(Page 07/line 01 – 03) “But when an infidel wants to have rule...”due to interference of Hindus in political affaire of the country they promoted Hindu values in the society.”
(Page 08/ line 05) “Hindus did a conspiracy and hurt Muslims.”
(Page 08/line 15) “In that period of time Hindus started a movement of Shudee to convert Muslims into Hinduism.”
(Page 09/line 17 – 18) “It was not acceptable to live under this nation as minority, which is contrary with Islamic nationalism they were tightened with racialism and caste system.”
(Page 10/line 02) “The Hindus did not like the decision of the independence of Pakistan; they tried their level best to discontinue this struggle.”
Lesson: Musads e Hali
(Page 15/line 7- 8) It shows illiteracy and barbarianism.
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Many Muslims like Maulana Abul Kalam Azad were not in the favour of the creation of Pakistan either. I guess the Maulana was a Hindu infidel too. There are more Muslims in India than in Pakistan and they chose to remain with secular India. I guess they are Hindu infidels too. Those Muslims who actually left their home and hearth and left for a land they knew nothing about just for the sake of Pakistan are however called Mohajirs and discriminated against too. Those Mohajirs sacrificed more for Pakistan than the Muslims who were already living in the areas now called Pakistan who didn't have to sacrifice everything they had. I hope they educate the Pakistani populace to not discriminate against them too. Regardless of the reasons for the creation of Pakistan there is no reason to preach hatred against religious minorities to this day if Pakistan claims to give equal rights for minorities. As citizens of Pakistan the state has a duty of care toward them and that includes not preaching hatred against them to the majority Muslims systematically and endangering the lives of minorities.
Giri's comment is a product of Indian miseducation.
These are nothing compared to Heere lal/Panna Lal story spinned by Zaid hamid. Oh and the Sakkina Bibi story.
However, I'm sure within the next one year, a Pakistani will be on moon, as claimed by Zaid Hamid.
The only reason for such hateful lessons in the text books is, Pakistan, for the time of birth is created as anti-India and anti Hindu state. Their leaders thought, if they do not propagate this theory of hatred, it may as integrate or people revolt against the state demanding the justification of partition and their by massacre of millions as a result.
@American Desi: "I just want to remind you about the knighthoods received by the proponents of Pakistan, Sir Syed to Sir Iqbal and many in between. They have been recognized and awarded RIGHTLY for their services to the Queen. Do you know what that means? Not so pure after all!"
I am afraid reasons for awarding knighthood to these two gentlemen were entirely different. You confirm contentions of the article about history books being nonreliable.
No pakistani has any interest in india, why you indians are so obsessed with pakistan.
zeeshan, beautiful information.
It seems Pakistani textbooks are following policy of Express Media group.. their focus is on profits... who cares about country or anything else!
@Sandeep, Most Pakistanis, after being taught the falsehoods and hate literature that is pakistan history, cannot fathom that in India history books can be secular, in fact sometimes too secular, to be politically correct.
i m Vice-principal of a cbse school. i have not seen any book of history in my 16 years job where any line against muslims are written. we are not poisoning minds of young ones. what my pakistani friends are quoting indian history books are from private publications and they are for college students who go for higher studies in history. even about pakistan or Jinnah saheb there is no derogatory remark. you may come to ujjain at any time or may visit any school in delhi or punjab and see yourself. in my school 30 percent students are muslims we teach all the students as students and treat them equally come and see yourself and by the way the Principal of our school is Mr Rahmatullah khan a well respected person in our town
Almost every fact in this world is offensive to someone , so should we live a silent life like animals so that no one is hurt.
If learning about facts of the history are offensive, then this offense is practices all over the world , would this organization demand the whole world to overlook the realities of the history like a peagon.
@Everyone being anti-Hindu, I'm pro-Kashmiri plebiscite and a little anti-India. But let's separate anti-Indianism from anti-Hinduism. Anti-Israeli sentiments from antisemitism etc. Don't forget that there are Hindus living in Pakistan who would by quite upset be reading some of these disheartening comments. Also our textbooks are full of this crap, and it has contributed to the lack of critical thinking skills in our country.
Wah, wah, just look at how you guys engaged in chest thumping about tolerance despite the blatant hatred for Pakistan, Pakistanis, Islam and Muslims in every word you typed. Do you see any bigotry in the narratives about Pakistan/Pakistanis from the likes of vasans etc.?
What does your history book teach about Kashmir? Please explain to us because I am curious: so many Indians here at Tribune always consider Islam and Muslims as THE problem in Kashmir (they viewed it as "Muslim separatism") while India as the generous democracy simply trying to rule over its territorial land. I am curious how much brainwashing involved in allowing Indians to cheer their men terrorizing Kashmiris and shouting "Kashmir is an intergral part of India".
Is this hate and anti-India too: http://dawn.com/2011/12/20/indian-police-charge-kashmir-officials-over-textbook/?
Secondly, Indians have never trusted their own history book. Look at how they treat Indian historians (ask them how they view "Marxist historians" from Irfan Habib to Romila Thapar):http://www.petitiononline.com/petitions/108india/signatures?page=2 So, to argue your history book is currently the way it is because of your "tolerance" is missing the national narrative's about Indian textbooks which believed otherwise that these textbooks have been "whitewashing Muslim crimes". So, how could you brag about your tolerant "textbooks" when you never trust them in the first place?
Thirdly, it was just recently, Indian politicians demand Gita to be taught in their schools to teach the children about "Indian culture":http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-07-20/india/297943331bhagavad-gita-bhagvad-gita-vishweshwar-hegde-kageri
Fourthly and most importantly, Indian's textbooks went through and are going through NOW the process of what liberals in India considered as "saffronisation of Indian textbooks". The Hindu, reported one as recently as last month: http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/bangalore/article2885405.ece
And important article to be read about the "saffronisation of Indians' textbooks:http://www.jstor.org/stable/4412835
I wish I have more time debatings about the merit of the report,
Distortions are not a Pakistani monopoly as our friends would like to suggest. some excerpts:
“the Gujrat government admits its textbooks describe’Muslims, Christians and Parsees as foreigners’ and glorify Nazism and Fascism.
They present Brahminical mythology as historical fact, and include narratives about such supposed ‘miracles’ as women producing children after eating sweets prepared by a fire-god.
The books stress violence, hatred, authoritarianism and hierarchy, and are full of stories of alleged brave killings of Ã¢â‚¬Ëœenemies of IndiaÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ by Hindu rulers. Students are appealed to take to violence if need be to defend the country. Expectedly, since Hindutva is the modern form of Brahminism, the books portray the Vedic period uncritically, claiming the Vedic culture to be the earliest and most refined form of human civilisation
Muslims are presented as the menacing Ã¢â‚¬ËœotherÃ¢â‚¬â„¢. Chapter after chapter recount tales of kings, conquests and wars fought supposedly for Hinduism and India, with the aim of promoting anti-Muslim hatred and making the students insensitive to violence. Hindu rulers who fought against Muslims are lavishly praised, and Muslim rulers are painted as cruel and barbaric. Similar cruelties by Hindu rulers are presented as intelligence and patriotism. The books ignore those Hindu kings who did not engage in wars with any ‘outsider’ and, likewise, there is no mention of those Muslim kings who ruled peacefully with support of Hindu elites. Muslims are blamed for almost the ills afflicting India historically as well as today. Even books for teaching such subjects as Science are used to reinforce blind conformity to the Hindutva vision of the world.
Memorably, one textbook claimed that the Taj Mahal, the Qu’tb Minar and the Red Fort, three of India’s outstanding examples of Islamic architecture, were designed and commissioned by Hindus.
16% of Indian Muslims are worse off than those human beings of India you call "untouchables" (see sachar report)
Conversely, despite all the complaints, Urdu speaking muslims of Pakistan such as myself are MUCH better off with over 90% literacy rate and leadership positions in business, military, presidencies and prime minister, arts, theater, media etc.
22%? many left at partition, I am genuinely sorry for that - but for this we can hang the hat on the departing british. i would also lay blame on your perfect country for taking a province that clearly did not belong to you and destabilizing all of south asia for six decades turning it into a war zone.
please share source of 22%. i am not suggesting your are lying, i would like to see it for my own knowledge.
as for your beautiful anecdote - i too can recall stories of elder indian muslims that were die-hard members of congress party only to run to pakistan without slippers from rioting hindu mobs in 1950..
@Usmanx, looks like your communal outlook restricts your ability to see things. Or else you would have seen the stark difference between India and Pakistan. An India, where Muslims have grown from 12% of population at partition to 16% of the population today ( and have not fled to Pakistan to save their lives and property ) with successful Muslims in all walks of life , while the Hindus/Sikhs who made 22% of the population of W Pakistan at partition, have been obliterated to 1-2%. Facts speak, propoganda can only lie.,
As an optimist I still think all is not lost. If Pakistani secular parties can prove politically savvy to win another couple of tems in office, an honest attempt can be made to rewrite history with tolerence towards minorities and the long due recognition that in an open political system there will be several views divergent of each other. If the earlier text books did not have this kind of poison as normal discouse, it is not impossible to reeducate people who have acquired intolerence and consider it normal.
There can be no doubt that the indian depises us. The indian sees us in the following manner:
Descendants of Islamic Invaders Illegal Settlers on 'Indian' Frontier Violent Converters Temple and Idol destroyers or Half-breed progeny of central asian invaders Opportunistic Low-caste Hindu Converts a savage and backwards people or Treasonous Indians of Fifth columnists against "United India" Identity conflicted slaves of Arabs with no heritage of their own Communalists
I am okay with Pakistan teaching as much anti-Hindu hate they can teach Pakistanis as long as they also make the resignation letter of Joginder Nath Mondal , part of the curriculum. Just one letter , from a pro-pak cabinet minister of Pakistan, is enough. Now Joginder Nath Mondal , was not anti-Pakstan or anti-Muslim. He was just the opposite, he was the poster child of Jinnah's Muslim league as the 'Hindu politician ' that supported Pakistan and even left India for Pakistan and was a member of the first Liaqat-Jinnah cabinet. He gives an insiders account of the genocide of minorities in Pakistan. Now I am not talking aboput the horrendous riots of partition in 1947, but what transpired in 1948-1950. Thats real Pakistan and things have gotten only worse since Mr Joginder Nath Mondal fled to India , resigning from his post of Minister of Labor, in the Liaqat-Jinnah cabinet.
@Babloo: I've already read it - what's your point?
the books that are mentioned there are taught specially in rss run schools.
state is in no way involved in writing these books..
and who wrote that baseless thing that they have been adopted for govt run or private schools.
besides atleast i do not doubt the statement that when muslims invaded, they had a sword in one hand and quoran in their mind.
if you doubt, just read destruction of persian civilization, at the hands of bedouin arabic invaders.
@Blackjack, I would recommend that you read the 17-page resignation letter of Joginder Nath Mondal from Jinnah-Liaqat cabinet in 1950, when he fled for his life to India, distraught over the genocide of his community in Pakistan. You can google 'resignation letter of joginder nath mondal'.
Thanks to those books that whenever we try to forget TWO nation theory, attitude of our Indian friends quickly reminds us what we learned in our textbooks. . Founders of Pakistan had to learn that the hard way (mostly coming to this conclusion after going through most of their life for Unity of India). . Thank you Pakistan! It is not wrong facts, it is history. It is not the ordinary Hindus or the English, it is the Elite at that time which wanted to enslave us!!!!
Further adding, Indian history must contain such hatred too as history is like a coin with two faces. you have to examine the both.
Most of the points labeled hatred are really the facts. And most of the points regarding the independence of Pakistan is taught to us too by our teacher that surely create a wave of hatred for Indians among us.. But denying a fact wont change it.
I am happy to see such lies in Pakistani text books. They are good for India. Pakistan will turn into talibanationn, No body will want to interact with them,Good luck.
Do Indian history books say "Muslims supported the partition of Indiad conspired against united India ? " Instead Indian history books say that while Mr Jinnah and his party Muslim League was for the partition of India, many great Muslim leaders, like Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Gaffor Khan were against the partition of India. Gandhi said, "Hindus and Muslims are like my two eyes. I can't pick one over the other". In contrast Jinnah ridiculed Gandhi as a "Hindu leader'.
Not a single history book taught in government schools , says derogatory things about Muslims in general. Not a single book or sentence. You cannot have a peaceful society if you preach hate.
that is not a new thing, its is obvious that we're taught 60% false facts regarding Subcontinent division and history after that in pakistan studies ...
Finally, someone said it. The entire curriculum is in need of a redo, if we hope to instil tolerance and acceptance within the next generation!
This distortion of history must stop in both countries. Here is information on Indian history books:
Going by the tone & tenor of some of the comments of Pakistanis it appears the writers of the textbooks have been eminently successful in their endeavours. That Indians too are capable of such venom without any help from their textbooks is a remarkable feat!
Look at how these elites and sick mentality people are controlling our minds. No wonder we are getting isolated and taboo in this evolving world. Teaching hatred to children at this age will do no good to them and to the nation over all. We should teach them the facts but also teach them to accept other people and appreciate them. It's shameful to have such books that teach hatred and insanity to growing gems of our country. Books are a source of knowledge and a person's best friend and sadly best friends do not destroy your character and harm you.
I studied in a govt school, studied text books prescribed by govt approved college and university and retired as a teacher. I have never been taught to hate Pakistan, nor did I teach my students hatred. I am an atheist and my religion (Hinduism by birth) gives me the freedom to think for myself. I have had students from all religions Hindu, Muslim, Christian and even Jainism. I always urged my students to think for themselves and not to accept everything, especially rites and rituals that affect people. Education should help children seek the truth and push them into darkness, which is what seems to be happening there in Pakistan. If people want to wallow in ignorance and pull their children also into the mire of ignorance and hatred the country is bound to be way behind in everything.
Most of the terrorist including OBL were caught or killed in Pakistan... thats why ... Saudi.. Iran .. and all other Muslim countries are also in the same league .... will that be a rational sentence ??? If children are taught illogically and without future thinking ... it is very obvious why Pakistan as a state is not a logical or a rational state... No wonder you have no firends left except CHINA... surprisingly she being a godless country same as was USSR.. shows illogical thinking of the whole nation as such
Coincidentally, most of the quotes described in this article against Hindus and the west (englishmen), pretty much end up as an argument in most of the pakistani's posts. The brain washing, indeed has worked well. Conspiracy of hindus and west is given as an excuse for every failure of pakistan. With the stuff being taught in pakistani school, you are better of not getting educated, the uneducated are probably the sanest people in pakistan.
Ashamed of being a Pakistani.
Hmm...Long after the arrival of Islam, in present day Islamic world, barbarism has only increased. Sad truth few would want to admit.
Looking at the distorted history as taught in Pakistani curriculam and the hate spewed in support of this distorted history by the bloggers, Indians (muslims, hindus and others) profusely thank Jinnah for bottling up the genie in the land called Pakistan. Indian muslims were wise enough not to migrate to Pakistan.
these are all facts. if any govt opts to change them then they will surely see people taking streets to oust them.
@Pure.: I just want to remind you about the knighthoods received by the proponents of Pakistan, Sir Syed to Sir Iqbal and many in between. They have been recognized and awarded RIGHTLY for their services to the Queen. Do you know what that means? Not so pure after all!
I always laugh out loud when Islamists talk about women's rights !
We Indians don't bear any resentment against Pakistan. Why so much hatred? Hatred breed violence and suspicion. Why not use our energy in development of our countries !! "Hindu Muslim Sikh Isai aapas mein hum bhai bhai".
@whoever: let's not get emotional over here.the land of pakistan belongs to it's people for over 5000 years as they are mostly descendants of hindu converts.partiton happened for good and we indians should be happy for what we have.im sure sooner or later pakistanis will see sense and stop this nonsense fundamentalism and we can live peacefully like US and Canada.coz ultimately fundamentalism has failed everywhere in the world,look at the pathetic state of BJP these days.
I don't need to condemn the entrenched bigotry the ideology that these books represent, reflect. The text books are doing a good job in supporting the fact that the state itself in Pakistan promotes the most callous falsehood and bigotry. It should be a matter of humilating shame for any sane Pakistani.
So what is wrong in it ??????
How about blaming entire Muslim umma fro OBL, Mumtaz Qadri and others? Let us teach that too.
main part of the truth is that the english gleefully wanted the partition as a way of taking revenge on the (hindu) indians ..... so the many statements linking hindus and "englishmen" together are simply untrue .
@afaq: - more evidence to prove that the number of pakistanis who prefer to avoid hatred are in the tiny minority and i feel sorry for them . This hatred is not gonna do pak any good and only a few realise it - i hope it's not going to be too little, too late - - - , unfortunately, for pakistan .My hope is sincere because a friendly paksitan would have been much better for ALL in the region , but until now it's just a hope.
You can teach the facts without implying that Hindus are villians.
“Hindus never accepted the independence of Pakistan.” ... How does the author know that? Was there ever a nationwide poll to gauge the opinion of the Hindus? Or is it that this was the stand taken by the Congress and the author has wrongfully generalized it?
The most neutral way to write it is: "The Congress was opposed to a two-state solution and maintained that India should remain a single state after independence."
@Talha: Jogendranath Mandal was no mass-movement leader - he felt that lower caste Hindus may get a better deal with Pakistan (unfortunately he equated Pakistan with Jinnah,and Jinnah with egalitarianism) but did not inspire any Hindus to migrate, especially when a much taller leader like Ambedkar had spoken against such a proposal (thank God for that). He also rued his decision to opt for Pakistan during the final years of his life which he spent in India.
Just like Punjabis don’t like independence for Baluchistan or even a Siraiki Province within Pakistan. If one is condemnable then so is the other.
someone has rightly said " A person fed with untrue breeds violence" . Most statements are wrong here , except one or two . We Indians still don't accept Pakistan and division of Greater India. It is our ancestor's land and will get it back . We will wait till it happens .
Well, Most of the things about Hindus is reality and our new generation needs to know what they did to us even the wrath at the time of migration.
Hindus and Muslims have been living here for centuries. Nobody hates each other except for a temporary lunatic fringe. Partition was a political movement, not a religious one. These textbooks are inciting hatred against an entire religion
So did many Muslim Mullahs. How come there is no hatred against such Mullahs in the text books? Oh wait, it’s these same Mullahs who are now blaming Hindus for opposing Pakistan.
Khisiani billi khmaba nochjay.
Well the tone and the use of wordings can be challenged, also the grades in which these lessons are taught could be challenged as being earlier grades to teach this information...but are we saying that these (atleast most of these) are not based on the facts? If yes..then sorry I opt to oppose..
Someone should take a look at what's being taught in madrassas.It's horrific beyond belief.Extreme misogyny,homophobia and loathing of anyone non-muslim be it hindus,atheists or ahmadis is brainwashed into young minds who grow up hating strong,self-reliant women,gays and lesbians and atheists. the govt. needs to find some courage and bring the madrassas under state regulation.
these are lame allegations , we had two nation theory , hindus have been enemies since the first day , they were against pakistan , they our against pakistan , they did conspiracies against pakistan and they are still doing.
Shameful propaganda against minorities.
Human rights org. only go after small preys, i dont see anything wrong in that, Yes Our Holy Prophet was greatest man in the History, Yes its true women remained degraded before the arrival of Islam. Yes Hindus used force to covert Muslims and yes i do agree there was a jewsh man who didn't let Muslims to drink water, ET and HRW u cant change the history, Islam and Pakistan Zindabad
Please have a look at Islamic studies as well!
Now that is just shameful. What are we teaching our children? No wonder that the nation appears to be borderline paranoid schizophrenic with severe persecution complex and delusions of grandeur.
Read 'The Muder of History' by KK Aziz. This book tells us how our textbooks have distorted the history. This is alarming.
Hindus were not against the creation of Pakistan, infact millions of Hindu's under Jogendra Nath Mandal opted in Pakistan. Mr Mandal was later appointed as the first Law and Labour Minister of Pakistan.
If you read facts, you will learn that the Mullahs vehemently opposed Pakistan and are destroying it today.
lame allegations ...
most of points stated above can be termed as FACTS, and you cannot change FACTS or sugarcoat them. e.g. (Page 02/line 22-23) “Hindus never accepted the independence of Pakistan.” (Page 02/line 21) “Hindus opposed the independence of Pakistan.” (Page 23/line 06) “Englishmen and Hindu were already against the Muslims”
Seriously, how can one teach Nazariya-e-Pakistan without presenting a case of what were the reasons behind the division? Should the books state: every thing was fine... Musilms, English and Hindus were living peacefully and yet Muslim needed a separate homeland... ??