Bhutto and Pakistan’s nuclear programme

Published: April 18, 2011
The writer is a retired diplomat and is currently on the faculty of the National Defence University

The writer is a retired diplomat and is currently on the faculty of the National Defence University

In assessing the contribution to Pakistan by former prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, it cannot be disputed that nuclear deterrence is the key strategic factor safeguarding Pakistan’s national security and that Mr Bhutto was the architect and prime mover towards the attainment of this capability.

Pakistan was faced by a paucity of scientists, facilities and, most of all, poverty of vision, compared to India. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Council, the forerunner of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), predated Mr Bhutto’s induction as minister of energy in 1958, after which the development of the nuclear infrastructure became a key focus. The PAEC could rely on his support for funding. The establishment of the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, the Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor under the US Atoms for Peace programme, and the contract for Pakistan’s first power reactor KANUPP owed much to his support.

In his 1967 book, The Myth of Independence, Mr Bhutto correctly assessed that India appeared determined to proceed with its plans to detonate a nuclear bomb, and that Pakistan must therefore embark on a similar programme. The 1971 war reinforced Bhutto’s conviction that Pakistan must have nuclear capability. He chose Dr Munir Ahmad Khan to take over the PAEC and, a few years later, Dr AQ Khan to set up a centrifuge plant, the cutting-edge technology of which was assessed by the West as beyond implementation by any developing country. Meanwhile, Dr Abdus Salaam continued as scientific adviser.

With trained manpower available, Dr Munir Ahmad indigenised capacity building and also started a number of infrastructural (nuclear fuel cycle-related) projects as well. These complemented the centrifuge programme and also helped run KANUPP. The latter became necessary following India’s testing of its nuclear weapons in 1974, because that led to Canada stopping fuel supplies altogether.

The centrifuge programme provided the enriched uranium which, by the early 80s, gave Pakistan nuclear capability. Of course, leaders depend on reliable professional advice. There were some blind spots. The safeguards on KANUPP depended on an agreement between Pakistan and supplier Canada and this would have lapsed within six months of the agreement’s abrogation. Pakistan had every right to do this when Canada stopped its fuel supplies. Had that been done, an early start to the plutonium route could have been taken. In the absence of such a move, the PAEC should have started work on an indigenous dedicated reactor earlier, rather than waiting 15 years.

Mr Bhutto’s main achievement in the nuclear field was to set the scientific community the specific task of making Pakistan a nuclear power and to appoint managers and allocate resources to proceed in that direction. The centrality of his vision has been substantiated by the fact that every successive government has further developed Pakistan’s nuclear programme and resisted efforts by foreign powers to restrict this capability. The recognition that our nuclear deterrent capability is vital for Pakistan’s defence and place in the world has become a unifying consensus in the country.

Published in The Express Tribune, April 19th,  2011.

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Reader Comments (30)

  • Wasil Arain
    Apr 19, 2011 - 12:14AM

    India did not swallow Bangla Desh although it does not have nuclear deterrent and as such Pakistan would have not ceased to exist even if Bhutto has not divereted the precious resources of the poor country to be wasted for such an adventure.Recommend

  • Blandweek
    Apr 19, 2011 - 12:44AM

    when will you leave us alone? you stuck to Foreign Office like a leech and now have started writingRecommend

  • Apr 19, 2011 - 12:51AM

    A laughable article when you consider that Pakistan is considered among the most dangerous countries in the world. Why has nuclear deterrance not helped? The saddest sentence in the article is “allocate resources to proceed in that direction”

    I suppose the author believes that India always intended to conquer Pakistan and the nuclear bomb has kept them from doing so. Perpetuate that myth and more successive governments will allocate more resources Kahuta’s way. Recommend

  • Cautious
    Apr 19, 2011 - 1:37AM

    One might argue that developing nuclear weapons was perhaps Pakistan’s biggest mistake – one that has wasted enormous sums of money and provided just an illusion of security. To make matters worse you sold this technology to some of the worst countries in the World including N Korea, Libya and Iran – something no other decent nation would consider. For those that argue that your nukes give you security – pick up the paper any weekend and read for an hour – that look like a secure country to you?Recommend

  • Neeraj, India
    Apr 19, 2011 - 2:14AM

    Mr. Bhutto gave you an assurance that in lieu of the ‘bum’ Pakistanis would be ready to eat grass and he was right because, that is exactly what is happening now. You go on begging for alms around the world, with one hand holding an ‘aitom bum’ and the other hand holding a begging bowl extended at every Tom, Dick and Harry of the world!
    Mr. Author, please don’t make Pakistanis more delusional as they are already living in a make believe world of myopia and self created stupid world of Alice in the wonderland. Recommend

  • John
    Apr 19, 2011 - 2:30AM

    Nuclear deterrence is a myth. It never stopped war, and it is especially true with IND and PAK.

    What the article failed to quote is where the money came from for PAK nuclear program. Not all money came from grass substitution, and the design of the bomb is not PAK.

    The question to be answered is this. Did it make Pakistan a safer place to live today than she was in 1970s.

    The country is heavily indebted, and survives on circular debt, surplus crop production, yet high food inflation, no power to run PAK industry despite adequate gas and coal, and investor confidence is not beyond 3 months, and she borrows at 12% rate from her T bill auctions and pays it from circular debt. These are not my words but data from SBP.

    If by magic PAK economy grows 8% a year, she doe not have skilled human resources to support her growth.
    The difference between PAK and N. Korea is that PAK is still allowed to borrow on circular debt to survive from international financial institutions. Otherwise, Bangladesh economy is stronger than PAK.

    This is one program that never benefitted any developing country with small economy,except
    gloating with hot air pride.
    This program was borne out of hatred, nurtured in hatred and pride and it is a Ferrari with no gas. The moment it is driven, not sure where, PAK will fall apart. A true Islamic bomb and PAK can be proud.

    Against whom PAK is going to race the Ferrari; India, China, US, Russia, Israel?

    Absurd to think that this program benefitted PAK and strange to consider that it is safe guarding PAK.

    Try shooting the drone first. Recommend

  • Apr 19, 2011 - 8:36AM


    Do you know what is the Pakistan’s position in world economy?

    What is the ratio of debt to GDP?

    DO you know how much is hidden economy in Pakistan?

    Do you know how much potential is there is for tax collection in Pakistan?

    Do you know what is the position of Pakistan at PPP GDP in world?

    Do you know that this country is without any windfall of natural resources ?

    What is the total population ratio as to Muslim world?

    Dear John do you know in how much Pakistan’s GDP has doubled?

    DO you read report of Economist…. which forecast world in 2060….what will be position of world economy?

    Just these questions, more later, if you know, please respond. Awaiting.Recommend

  • Singh
    Apr 19, 2011 - 9:11AM

    Yes Pak economy is so strong that it borrow mere $3 billion from Muslim bank @ 12% APR.
    Team is sitting in New york in front of IMF for next round of borrowing.

    Public Debt in Pakistan
    st Pakistan entered the 21 Century with serious financial
    problems. Public debt exceeded 90% of its GDP, over 600% of
    its annual revenues, and debt servicing accounted for over half
    of current revenues. In 2001, Pakistan was the only country in
    South Asia to be classified as a severely indebted country by
    the World Bank. Due to the inability to service external debt,
    there were two consecutive rounds of debt rescheduling by
    Paris Club members and one from the quasi-London Club
    between 1998 and 2001. Pakistan had to seek exceptional
    financing arrangements from the International Monetary Fund
    in January 1999, after facing a severe balance of payments’
    Read this
    Now wait for life.

  • Nadeem
    Apr 19, 2011 - 9:24AM

    Mr. Arain,What would had happened, if Pakistan had the nuclear deterrence in 1971Recommend

  • John
    Apr 19, 2011 - 9:46AM

    Answer is yes to all. I did not make my comment lightly. The potential has not changed since 1950s but the reality is PAK has put wrong priorities since 1971. India manuvered nuclear program since 1950s on and off and it was the cold war politics made her into go nuclear, not PAK. PAK nuclear program started as India centric and eventually it went in wrong direction, but it did not help her.

    The debt to GDP to PAK is unsustainable,despite potentials. Potentials depends on several factors, chief of which is stable government with deliverables and law and order. Next 10 years are to watch with regard to PAK economy and it also depends on debt forgiveness.

    In any case, the central issue is whether the PAK nuclear program helped the country. In PAK the institutions that say yes, use india as a scape goat to justify the expense. Ironically people believed, and this is where we are here today. I have no doubt PAK will be a prosperous country in 20 years if the civilian government objectives are met.. Next 5 years is political stability, the next 5 economic stability, and next 5 institution and trade maturity and so on.

    The reality is PAK needs another 10 years to develop her human capital also to meet the potential economic demand.

    Any further attack either in India, US, Moscow, China or Europe from PAK sets a different courseRecommend

  • Ravi
    Apr 19, 2011 - 9:59AM


    What is the ratio of debt to GDP?
    Till you dont have ways to pay your debt , and debt to gdp ratio is huge……….
    You forget that pakistan is taking loans to pay its earlier loans, this is circular debt…
    Your salaries are paid by american aid …………remember??????
    DO you know how much is hidden economy in Pakistan?
    Hidden economies of countries like india and china will be highest in the world but they don’t matter as far they remain hidden……….
    Do you know how much potential is there is for tax collection in Pakistan?
    Its not about potential, its the will of the government that matters for tax collection.
    Will you government ever be able to collect taxes from the landlords (zardari , gilani , nawaz sharif types) who represents the almost all of agriculture sector……
    Don’t forget that agriculture is the biggest sector in pakistan and is far less taxed…….
    Do you know what is the position of Pakistan at PPP GDP in world?

    Your purchasing power parity will decline as soon as american aid stops, that is when you currency will tumble against the dollar, euro, yen and INR…….
    As pakistani rupee loses its value, pakistan will be just printing more currency, and then you will have to take bagfull of money to get handfull of apples………….

    Do you know that this country is without any windfall of natural resources ?
    Any country’s most revered resource is its manpower……….
    And i could very well understand by reading articles like “Education emergency in pakistan” that how well are you developing those precious resources………….

    What is the total population ratio as to Muslim world?
    Don’t know and don’t wanna know even………..

    DO you read report of Economist…. which forecast world in 2060….what will be position of world economy?
    Don’t be delusional no body knows what will happen in 2060………
    India will be huge by then, but why should i care it today.?????Recommend

  • Nahyan Mirza
    Apr 19, 2011 - 10:17AM

    I know it for a fact that the power crisis in Pakistan today caused by the enormous drain on our electricity caused by upkeep and maintenance of the Nuclear Bombs. Sources in WAPDA say 60 percent of all generated electricity of Pakistan is consumed by our BOMB WAREHOUSES which need it at a minimum to support and maintain the nukes, thus leaving a minor part of the generation for industrial and domestic consumption. Countries use nuclear technology to produce electricity. We use it to consume electricity. A Huge Thank You to Dr. Qadeer Khan!!!!!!!!! Recommend

  • Maria
    Apr 19, 2011 - 10:40AM

    @John: I think you Indians know only full well how much of a deterrent the Pakistani nuclear program is. Otherwise you wouldn’t be trying to so hard to disprove it here on a Pakistani site! The Indians took Western technology and abused it from its gift for use in peaceful purposes. They started the nuclear arms race and have the gall to talk about Pakistan’s nuclear program. What a joke. Then they started all types of sensationalistic claims and war hysteria. I still remember the Indian sabre rattling prior to Pakistan’s successful testing of nuclear weapons. How the Indians shut up so quickly when they realized that Pakistan could defend itself with nuclear technology if pushed by Indian aggression. Say what you will here but Pakistanis are very secure knowing that our nuclear umbrella gives us a degree of security over Indian nuclear weapons. When you destroy yours, we can consider asking our government to do the same. Didn’t your mother teach you that people in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.Recommend

  • Ammad
    Apr 19, 2011 - 11:45AM

    Pakistan has only one problem: ‘indigenous patriotic intellectuals’ .

    Mr. Neeraj, why does India have a bomb? We are a nation of jokers, you are the nation “living in a make believe world of myopia and self created stupid world of Alice in the wonderland.” You are from a nation that is estimated to have a third of the world’s poor. “There are 421 million MPI poor people in eight Indian states alone — Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal — and 410 million in the 26 poorest African countries combined.” – Hindustan Times, July 13th, 2010. So on both counts of your argument, India would have more reason NOT to have a bomb. Nonetheless, luckily leaders of both India and Pakistan due not suffer from a lack of vision such as a person like yourself, then again that’s probably why you have the time to honour us with your depth of understanding on world affairs.

    Mr. Nayhan: Your information is very interesting, I suggest you have your uncle at WAPDA checked by a shrink.

    Mr. John: “Nuclear deterrence is a myth. It never stopped war, and it is especially true with IND and PAK.” Really? and that has probably been inferred from an in-depth analysis of History? “What the article failed to quote is where the money came from for PAK nuclear program. Not all money came from grass substitution, and the design of the bomb is not PAK.” I can understand your how that must make you feel (and it is probably true), but how does that help your argument? All the other nonsense on debt, human capital, inflation – Try answering Mr. Mahmood’s questions, otherwise we can help suggests some books for you to read on political economy and world affairs.

    Like I said, we are a nation of Jokers; ridiculous intellectuals who have nothing better to do then whine and cry on the television and blogs. That is why we are where we are, not because of the 20 odd B$ we’ve spent on the bomb in over 4 decades!Recommend

  • vasan
    Apr 19, 2011 - 12:02PM

    Pl dont destroy your nukes. We also will not. We have to worry about China. If u destroy the nukes, you will not be able to do clandestine exports to N Korea etc, your army will lose its importance and existence and hence please dont destroy the nukes. The Taliban will lose its motivation to take over Pakistan and its nukes . So pl dont destroy.
    Throwing stone from Glass houses??. I think there are still cases pending in Belgium for stolen nuclear secrets by one gentleman called Dr A Q Khan. Remember ? Recommend

  • Hussain J
    Apr 19, 2011 - 12:17PM

    @Neeraj, India:
    First of all get clear that although there are poverty issues in Pakistan but these are not as mutch as compared to your mahan india, most of the indian footpaths at night becomes bedrooms while not the situation in Pakistan then secondly if we ask for money from US then that is the cost of war we are fighting on behalf of them and for use of our bases and other infrastructure. and in this US war we are loosing much more than we are getting. Recommend

  • Ammad
    Apr 19, 2011 - 12:48PM

    Public Debt as a % of GDP:

    Pakistan 49.90
    India 55.90
    United Kingdom 76.50
    United States 97.3
    Japan 225.80

    External Debt as a % of GDP:

    Pakistan 31
    India 18
    United Kingdom 398
    United States 97
    Japan 51

    Current Account Balance (USD Billion):

    Pakistan -2.641
    India -26.910
    United Kingdom -40.340
    United States -561.000
    Japan 166.500

    GDP-Tax ratio(%):

    Pakistan 10.2
    India 17.7
    United Kingdom 39.0
    United States 28.2
    Japan 27.4

    Balance of Trade (Million Dollars)

    2008 -20,196.7
    2009 -16,891.2
    2010 -15,163.0

    So yes, our economy is not doing well. It will be a tough hike to stability, one that will require, primarily, political stability. The land and people of this nation have the resilience to face the challenges we confront. Nonetheless, the attainability of the solution suggests the problem is not as drastic as portrayed to be by geniuses inside and outside our country. We are far better of then we were 3 years ago. Recommend

  • Vinayak
    Apr 19, 2011 - 1:20PM

    You could not have crushed Bangaladeshi demand for Independence with all nuclear bombs in the world.

    If Pak had nuclear deterence in 1971, India would have thought twice before marching towards Dhaka, consequently:–

    a. There would have been more killings and rapes in Bangaladesh.
    b. Pakistan would have had to face a long protracted civil war in Bangaladesh, eventually leading to Bangaladesh becoming a separate nation.
    c. Of the 90,000 prisoners of war that India handed over to Pakistan, many would have died from angry Bangladeshi repraisals.

    So, in a way it was good Pakistan did not have a nuclear bomb then.Recommend

  • AK
    Apr 19, 2011 - 2:20PM

    A bomb which is of no use to help our economy and provide basics of life to people. Recommend

  • Realist
    Apr 19, 2011 - 2:23PM

    LOL. Looks like the Indian visitors are angry as hell on Pakistan’s nuclear program. I say good job Mr. Bhutto. Good job indeed. Recommend

  • Ravi
    Apr 19, 2011 - 2:23PM

    The Indians took Western technology and abused it from its gift for use in peaceful purposes.
    And you forget that your nuclear father (A Q Khan) is a known proliferator, who stole cetrifuge designes from netherlands……
    We were partially allied to USSR and were fully cut off from west.
    And yes the earlier plutonium stockpiles were sourced from CIRUS at trombay but you fail to read that after that all our association with the west was cut till the recent civilian nuclear deal with america.
    Since i am from science field i can tell you that nuclear weapons are not only about plutonium, it also needs a huge back ground research which we did on our own (not like pakistanis who sourced a chinese tested bomb design)…….
    So how did we got help from west only you know so plz return to enlighten us……….
    Say what you will here but Pakistanis are very secure knowing that our nuclear umbrella gives us a degree of security over Indian nuclear weapons.
    We have a no first use policy vis a vis any country, either it’s Pakistan or china………….
    Pakistan is the most insecure nation of the world and thus has a first use policy……..
    And you talked pakistanis being secure, go and ask those pakistanis who were maimed or their relatives killed in suicide attacks on various mazar’s ….. they will tell you the reality of security situation of pakistan..Recommend

  • binwakeel
    Apr 19, 2011 - 2:54PM

    Despite his best efforts the writer contradicts himself time and again. All in all the article it a bumbling attempt at a whitewash. No more no less. Recommend

  • meekal ahmed
    Apr 19, 2011 - 3:31PM

    Mr. Bhutto was the true father of the bomb.

    The Ambassador does not mention an interesting part of the story: the tussel between Munir Ahmed of PAEC and AQ Khan of Kahuta. It was AQ who convinced Bhutto that the uranium enrichment route would be faster and cheaper. He was proved right. That is why the plutonium route never took off.

    Not to worry. I believe they are going full-speed ahead now according to satellite pictures.

    I also recall the brilliant act of contrived anger that Bhutto expressed when the French under US pressure cancelled the reprocessing plant. Little did the French (or the US) know that we were well on the way to mastering centrifuge technology.

    In any event, why we need two routes baffles me. We already have a stock-pile of over 100 bombs and are headed towards being the fifth-largest nuclear power on earth. Isn’t that enough of a “nuclear deterrent”? At what point do we say, OK, we now have a “minimum, credible nuclear deterrent capacity” and STOP?

    Asking where all the money has come from is a very pertinent question. Cash? Loans? Sale proceeds of nuclear blueprints and material etc to other nations? Still going on?

    Anyone keeping accounts?

    We will never be given answers to these questions because of the the “national interest”. To be fair, this is probably the only case where that does apply.

    One final point: the armed forces are fond of telling us about the sacrifices that they have made for the people of Pakistan. While that is true, the real sacrifice has come from Pakistan’s teeming civilian millions — including the poor. Sure we have the bomb. But we have no power, water, gas, affordable food, education, health systems, physical infrastructure, safe drinking water, no sanitation, etc and rank well down on international comparative statistics on the quality of life. Recommend

  • Wasil Arain
    Apr 19, 2011 - 5:31PM

    @ Nadeem

    Even if Pakistan had a nuclear detterence in 1971, it could not keep the majority province of erstwhile East Pakistan under eternal subjugation and Pak army would have been sane enough as not to nuke the Bengalis or start mad game of mutual destruction with India.Recommend

  • Apr 19, 2011 - 10:50PM

    Tariq Osman Hyder has said nothing that should have riled the Indian readers. I consider his comment as measured and moderate. Pakistan had its reasons to go nuclear and so had India. No point in denigrating either nation’s choice. The way forward for the two countries is to proceed with confidence that comes from their respective nuclear capability, to chart a framework of cooperation rather than confrontation in the decades ahead. Whatever the causes of bitterness and acrimony, we should heed Manmohan Singh’s renewed initiative for improving India-Pakistan relations. We all stand to benefit from progress that can be made, first in improving the ambiance and then on substance. As for Pakistan’s weaknesses and failings, sometimes a single quote can be worth tomes of arguments. A German scholar said he considered Pakistan the ultimate miracle state because despite repeated warnings it has not become a failed state. Recommend

  • Apr 19, 2011 - 11:43PM

    Well, first of all the whole talk of “Pakistan having Nuclear technology in 1971” is ridiculous because if that was the case, Pakistan would have been permanent member of UN Security Council with Vero power. That would have changed history in major way, but that is not the case. The real nuclear power need was felt AFTER Indian nuclear testing because only recently war was fought and Pakistan lost its Easter half and there was no guarantee that another conflict would not occur.
    And it truly has safeguarded Pakistan in many ways because during 70s there were a lot of boasting from Indian side about annihilating Pakistan if it even peeped the word Kashmir. That all began to change when reports surfaced in early 80s that Pakistan has performed cold test and is nuclear capable.
    However, I still do not agree on handing so much power to Pakistan Army because repeated dictator regimes and constant disruption of civilian infrastructure has led to abysmal situation. Take any department and it is full of corruption. We should not forget that majority of these departments are federal controlled one way or the other and have been under army observation as well, but still they remained corrupt while during 70s the corruption was at a minimum, if any.
    From my point of view, Zia Ul Haq began the real destruction of Pakistan and he destroyed much of good work of Bhutto while leaving behind enough problems that still could not be solved even after over 2 decades of his death.Recommend

  • Ajay
    Apr 20, 2011 - 6:53AM

    It gave you a sense of security. Alright. So Pakistan can continue to proovoke India knowing India will not react. But there is always the other side also. This niuclear capapbility of Pakistan without responsible behavior in other spheres has actually made Pakistan weak by diverting resources and making new enemies together with other issues.
    Your army will be afraid to use these weapons when Worl comes knocking at your door which is very likely. Just think your army isn’t able tto take down simple drones.

    You guys did not develop other weapons of the day-

    Educated workforce
    Faith of people in country and its constitution
    Outside world’s faith in yoru country’s capapbilities
    Unity of people- in fact your country is completely fractured along many lines

    Just because US is not syaing much or doing much is making you guys take it for granted. US has weapons (new technology eweapons) that if used, you wont even know what hit you- whether it is natural disaster or man made, even if you knew, you wouldn;t be able to detect. The people will simply die leaving the natural resources intact.

    By continously making an enemy out of India you guys have shot yourself in the foot. Other nations will take advantage of your poor relationship with your neighbor. India was also taken advantage of but because of its other strenghts, it is not much of a factor now. India does not really need good relations with Pakistan as the impact is not too significant.

    So in conclusion your nuclear weapons have actually made you more vulnerable since you have become more dangerous to others. You are dangerous because your polity is not considered civil.Recommend

  • Ajay
    Apr 20, 2011 - 7:01AM

    @Hussain J:
    So why are you not getting the money?
    And what if the US thinks (like I think) that this is actually Pakistan’s war? Doesn;t matter what gets said to please Pakistan. Pakistan itself double speaks and keeps it own public in dark.

    Why have you bene reduced to a begging state?
    Even Japan without any resources never begged. Why did Pakistan- a country full of reasources and 500 times the size of Japan did?

    Somethings i wrong with the way you people think and conduct yourself.Recommend

  • Apr 20, 2011 - 11:18AM


    Dear read the assessments of Indian army about Pakistan, how do they see it and book on Siachen by Ex . General in the area will be eye opener for you about capabilities of Pakistan Army.

    And Pakistan made enemy out of India? History is a bitter truth, Why Patel agreed for Pakistan? Why Bapu was killed?

    Read Ram Chandra Guha in Outlook how Indian government developed a department to destabilize and finish Pakistan in early 1970’s.

    See why in Naxalites corridor Indian forces call the Naxalite area as Pakistan.

    Bigger weapons are rarely used, as atom bomb but their implications are enormous. That is the reason world power want to limit it and world raises false alarms of nuclear take over by so-called Taliban.

    Reports of our death are highly exaggerated time and again and if it happens, then there will be more than 300 people ………. for what? Use imagination!Recommend

  • Romm
    Apr 21, 2011 - 1:48AM

    the scale of Indies entering into this Blog and Spewing Venom against Pakistan Speaks the Need for Pakistan to have Nuclear Devices capable of Shaking Incredible India. Has Any indian Blog been Bombarded by Pakistanis as this one. It speaks India’ss Shallowness and their inability to behave like a Super power. After reading this Indians should have shame and Ought to Mind their own poverty and Weaknesses.Recommend

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