The deepening Pak-Afghan divide

Published: June 15, 2016
The writer has served as ambassador to Afghanistan and is a former interior secretary

The writer has served as ambassador to Afghanistan and is a former interior secretary

The closing of the Torkham border crossing and the refusal to allow Afghans not possessing relevant travel documents to enter Pakistan was always going to have multi-dimensional ramifications on the course of relations between the two countries, which can now be seen in the tensions on the border that resulted in the tragic martyrdom of a Pakistan Army major. The rationale for the Pakistani decision to limit the crossing of Afghans into Pakistan is simple: many acts of terrorism were attributed to Afghans entering Pakistan unlawfully and national interest dictated a more restrictive policy that would deny entry to those not possessing proper documents and whose identity cannot be established.

However, something that should not be ignored is that there are 235 entry-exit points along the 2,250km border, but customs and immigration procedures are applicable only at Torkham and Chaman. For someone intending to engage in acts of terrorism inside Pakistan, it will be naive to attempt to cross the border at Torkham and Chaman, and expose themselves to the risk of being caught by dozens of officials manning the border on each side. Such terrorists or their supporters would rather take any other convenient route to enter Pakistan. Secondly, facts suggest that over the last 10 years, hardly one per cent of Afghan nationals or refugees have been found involved covertly or overtly in sponsoring terror attacks in Pakistan. Most terror attacks have either been planned by terrorists inside Pakistan or by Pakistanis who have found shelter inside Afghanistan. Another important factor that we need to consider is the question of resources: do we have the manpower, space and facilities to check 10,000 visas every day in a place like Torkham, located at the entrance of the Khyber Pass where hundreds of trucks carrying goods are parked on each side with transporters seeking clearance from more than half a dozen departments?

The recent violence at the Torkham border crossing will surely create animosity and anger within people on both sides of the border. The hostility in Afghanistan has the potential to have long-term consequences for Pakistan, keeping in view the range of projects of great strategic significance, like CASA-1000 and TAPI, which may be negatively impacted if this situation persists. The fate of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, which is set to be a key for our infrastructure and energy needs, may also be indirectly impacted. There is a need for more effective border management on the Pak-Afghan border. However, considering that Islamabad has not been able to develop a positive working relationship with New Delhi and is digging trenches on its border with Iran, border tensions with Afghanistan will only allow anti-Pakistan feelings to deepen in that country. Is it in our interest to isolate ourselves internationally and promote an image of a country that cannot coexist with its neighbours?

Consider the enormous implications for Pakistan. There are about 150,000 Pakistani refugees living in the province of Khost in Afghanistan. These tribesmen were able to go across the border easily because their co-tribesmen on the other side did not object to them seeking refuge in Afghanistan when their lives were in danger as the military operation got underway in our tribal areas. There are also close to 150,000 Pakistani skilled workers living inside Afghanistan, mostly without travel documents. There are tribes on both sides divided by the Durand line. Common ethnicity is a major factor. Under a treaty signed between Afghanistan and the British Indian government in 1905, people within five miles of the border are not required to present any documents and are allowed to travel freely without any hindrance. From the Afghan point of view, that treaty is still binding on both Afghanistan and Pakistan — the successor state to British India. Sentiments against Pakistan in Afghanistan run deep for several reasons. According to a recent public opinion survey in Afghanistan, the favourability rating for Pakistan had plunged to a dismal 3.6 per cent. Should this not be a wake-up call for us?

Then there is the issue of Afghan refugees. In the wake of the arrest of some Afghan spies in Quetta, there is a crescendo of voices emanating mostly from armchair ‘analysts’ in the media calling for forcible repatriation of all refugees. The one who kicked off this debate was the Balochistan interior minister who basically said that Afghan refugees will be humiliated and kicked out of Pakistan if they don’t leave soon. Apart from the unfortunate choice of language by the minister, what he and others have not realised is that these refugees have come from areas in Afghanistan that are most insecure because of insurgency and where government institutions, like schools, roads and hospitals don’t function. Having lost their homes, the refugees have nowhere to go. Despite this, voluntary repatriation to Afghanistan happens all the time. On average, around 20,000 Afghan refugees are repatriated each month. Having lived here for over 30 years, are we going to force them to leave and generate huge anger and hatred for Pakistan? Is it fair under international law to force refugees to go back against their will? Would such a step not sow the seeds of long-term hostility towards Pakistan? Then there is the question of so-called undocumented refugees — those whom the authorities here have not been able to reach and register. Should they be penalised for the inability of our institutions to register them? Not a day passes by without innocent refugees, mostly hawkers, vendors and street peddlers who have lived here for decades, being picked up by the police, detained and humiliated with scant regard for any norms of justice or the thought that these people may be the sole bread-earners for their impoverished families.

While every country has the right to secure its borders and introduce a system to address a lax security system, it is best if that is done with mutual understanding with the other side. Too often our decision-making is predicated upon transient security concerns and there is little regard for long-term strategic interests of the country. There is a need for reappraisal on both sides before it is too late.

Published in The Express Tribune, June 16th, 2016.

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Reader Comments (41)

  • Human
    Jun 15, 2016 - 11:59PM

    solute you sir for such a remarkable article stating nothing but facts Recommend

  • khattak
    Jun 16, 2016 - 12:33AM

    this is what you get when a country is run by Security Establishment in the presence of an elected Government.Recommend

  • Abdul Khan
    Jun 16, 2016 - 12:37AM

    The writer is correct 100%. We can not antagonize all neighbors and live happily. For a stabilized Pakistan, stability in Afghanistan is required. Bravado will not work here. More pro-active diplomacy is required. We are putting all of our eggs in one basket-China. You never know China may turn against us if their interests are threatened. Please think in cool mind. The simple truth is that we are angry because Afghanistan embraces India and Modi. We hate them.But remember, India came to this stage because of their hard work on developmental field( though they are doing both good work for Afghanistan as well as spying for India). The fact of the matter is we can not simply only remind Afghanis on how many refugees we are hosting but do more good works to help them to stabilize Afghanistan. Recommend

  • Ali
    Jun 16, 2016 - 2:10AM

    Mr. Rustom, are you an Afghan or Pakistani? It seems your heart lies in Afghanistan. Recommend

  • saqib
    Jun 16, 2016 - 3:25AM

    T”he deepening Pak-Afghan divide “I want to ask the following questions from author:

    a) Don’t you think today terrorism , we are facing is only because of Afghanistan?

    b) After Peshawar massacre, still we wait for any other incident by not securing our border?

    c)Don’t you think Pakistan has been benevolent to Afghanistan from the day first Which Afghan Govt. never realized ?

    d) what about Indian intrigues to weaken Pakistan & Afghanistan’s instance?

    could you comment plRecommend

  • Cool Henry
    Jun 16, 2016 - 4:45AM

    First of all – am impressed that terms like Kashmir and Nukes have not been used even once in the column. Very impressive would have been to strongly advocate enhanced trade, commerce, travel and tourism between Afghanistan, India and Pakistan. This simple idea would go a long way in ensuring lasting peace prevails.Recommend

  • vinsin
    Jun 16, 2016 - 6:17AM

    According to Sartaj Aziz it is pakistan foreign policy to isolate herselves internationally and that is Pakistan national/security interest. By international laws Pakistan is expected to keep refugees till 2017 afterwards it is upto Pakistan. Pakistan cannot/shoulnot be forced to keep them beyond that. Afghanistan hatredness towards Pakistan should not come in between refugee issues. Hatredness is ok, it is the war and firing at borders that should be stopped.Recommend

  • Zalmay Khan
    Jun 16, 2016 - 8:44AM

    The 1 % figures in which the author mentions that afghans refugees have not been inbolved in terror incidents seems to be far from.truth..if the author thinks that pakistani analysts are anti-afghans then perhaps he should tune into afghan media and dee the face of their media against us….also wat abt the indian consulates along border openly working to destabilise pakistan. Mr. Ambassador perhaps u should think out of tribal sentiments rest agreed pakistan must reciprocate good relations not develop them at the cost of its ownRecommend

  • Afghan
    Jun 16, 2016 - 8:47AM

    In response to your questions one by one;
    A) Is Pakistan not the epicenter of terrorism and terrorists, the live example are, the annihilation of OSAMA and MANSOOR on Pakistani soil, both in the settled areas, closer to Pakistani garrisons.
    B) Are the these terrorists camped at the border check posts, are deeper in the big cities like Karachi, Peshawar and Quetta.

    C) There was no benevolence in the past by Pakistan, but only to protect Pakistan while keeping the fire burning on Afghan soil. Who Pakistan gave this authority in the past to give verdicts of Jihad in Afghanistan. I am confident that you are not aware of the past and do listen to the rhetoric of your leaders, like General Zia, Hameed Gul and others.

    D) Afghanistan being an independent and sovereign nation has the full right to exercise it with whom to development relationship. Pakistan should give up its past approach of strategic depth in the Afghanistan, not its backyard.

    Hope this would be understandable! Recommend

  • Naveed
    Jun 16, 2016 - 9:34AM

    Although some of the facts regarding our government in efficiency are agreed upon but this doesn’t justify infiltration of Afghan refugees in settled areas. Beside terrorist activities, a continuous role in street crimes by them in cities can’t be ignored. Enjoying the luxury of business and trade but denying tax return is another issues. For sake of our next generation future please support the repatriation of Afghan refugees. Please don’t creat ambiguity on directives of outside bosses. Recommend

  • SB
    Jun 16, 2016 - 10:08AM

    A factual and logical article. Lot of new information. Afganistan hosting 1.5 million pakistani refugees is really surprisingRecommend

  • spark
    Jun 16, 2016 - 10:22AM

    sir, going by ur logic it means pak MUST open the border to all neighbour in order to please its neighbour, y not to open LOC, Wagha border, iran ,let all people come and go without any visa ,entry documents,y not to whole world to plz the international community .seems to me that u learn nothing in Ministry of foriegn affairs,Recommend

  • Atal
    Jun 16, 2016 - 10:44AM

    It’s seems that geopolitical views are changing nowadays , good going bro! Every nation has every right to practice peace, prosperity and development. Recommend

  • Shuaib
    Jun 16, 2016 - 10:46AM

    @Afghan: You need to understand that Pakistan has completely given up on Afghanistan. Our establishment does NOT care about you. It’s absolutely clear that our establishment is saying: Go to India now,we do not care.Recommend

  • Logic
    Jun 16, 2016 - 10:56AM

    Mr. Rustam Mohammed failed to mention pro Indian Afghan govt, which is trying to destabilise Pakistan on behest of US. This is the single most important reason Pak Army has to take stand, rest is irrelevant.Recommend

  • Tanveer
    Jun 16, 2016 - 12:28PM


    With all due respect, Your replies to saqib’s questions are not realistic, A) As you said Pakistan is epicenter of terrorism and Osama Bin Laden was murdered in Pakistan. However, you forgot to mentioned that Taliban were strengthen in Afghanistan and they invited Osama to stay in Afghanistan, TORA BORA is not in Pakistan. If Pakistan was the epicenter then NATO Should attack Pakistan not Afghanistan, so please correct your facts.

    B) Afghanistan is terrorists hub and they don’t even think to attack kids with books in their hands. Taliban in Afghanistan attacking us are not in Pakistan, even though we doing far better than Afghanistan in every walk of life. No comparison at all..!

    C) If Millions of Afghan refugees living in Pakistan not benevolence then we should not mention it to someone who doesn’t understand the meaning of hospitality, care and kindness. Name a country on earth would give your people a living as we did and we did it as brothers. Afghanistan was never a stable country in history except few periods, name a product you made, name anyone except warriors and looters. You badly need to correct your history. We helped you in Russian invasion, It was not only Pakistan, it was west, Arabs and us who jointly helped to kick out Russia.

    D) Pakistan doesn’t care whoever you consider friend or foe, we respect your sovereignty and we expect the same. If Afghanistan wants to play in others hands, it’s her destiny, we don’t care.


  • SKChadha
    Jun 16, 2016 - 12:53PM

    Neither GoP nor Establishment nor any writer from Pakistan is putting the cause behind the tension in right perspective. The issue is whether Durand Line at all is considered as Border by Afghanistan? The answer is big NO.

    The Durand Line was drawn under a treaty between British and Afghan, which was valid only for 100 years. This was a working area line to avoid skirmished in tribal area. This treaty had expired in 1993 and Afghanistan is re-claiming its Pushtoon territory as in case of China claimed Hongkong. Further, if Pakistan claims Durand Line as Border between Pakistan and Afghanistan, then on what basis it can reject MacMohan Line and Johnsons Line between India (J&K/ Arunanchal Pradesh) and China? And on what basis it ceded Aksai Chin to China?

    Please make the ground realities clear to the citizenry. Recommend

  • Shafiullah Khan
    Jun 16, 2016 - 1:01PM

    Thanks Mr Rustom for writing the facts.The Closing of Torkham border by Pakistan does not have any thing to do with infiltration of terrorists. The whole world knows where Terrorists are hiding.By doing so Pakistan tried not only to divert the international community attention from recent event of killing of Mansoor on its soil but also to express its frustration over Chahahar (although Afghanistan had requested Pakistan repeatedly for a road link to India but was denied depriving itself from the transit income between India,and Afghanistan and central Asia).One thing that Mr Rustom shah did not mention is the adverse effect of closed torkham on the economy of people, particular Peshawar.In short,I would say that Pakistan has adopted a policy of not only making the Afghans of Afghanistan enemies but also alienating the local Pashtuns too by depriving them of their basic human rights e.g keeping FATA under FCR for a particular purpose, snatching their rights in CPEC by diverting main CPEC to through Punjab, and the most worst is the blowing of roofs of common people houses in S. Waziristan and N. waziristan in order to be monitored from the air that no terrorists are hiding and then telling the displaced people to go back your homes, the area is cleared of terrorists.Recommend

  • vinsin
    Jun 16, 2016 - 1:55PM

    3) Without those warriors you wont be a Muslim and then you wont be having a country called Pakistan. Those warriors are celebrated in Pakistan and have missiles named on those.
    Before asking Afghanistan, name a global invention done by Pakistan. What would be history of Pakistan without those Afghan warriors? Empty.Recommend

  • Naveed
    Jun 16, 2016 - 4:06PM

    i am 100 % agree with Mr.Rustam Shah Mohmand and with his points,and many thanks for writing this important article. both side need to forgot the past and just think about their future. Afghans and Pakistanis are brothers and neighbors, we need to think about the similarities with we have. we are Muslims, we are brothers, we are neighbors, we have same culture, same tradition, same history and same future. lets talk about cooperation and friendship, Pakistan need to change its afghan policy, Pakistan need to help Afghanistan because we are their brothers, the current condition will create many problems for both afghan and Pakistani nations, we both will be the losers, Pakistan can invest in Afghanistan in many sectors, Pakistan can find very short way to central Asia through Afghanistan, there are many opportunities, lets start a new phase of cooperation and friendship, we must forgot the past, we are not enemies we are brothers, we must need to change our minds, we don’t understand each other, we need to realize each other views, afghans will never allowed any one to use their land against Pakistan and we want the same from our Pakistani brothers. The current situation will create many problems for Afghanistan and Pakistan and for the brother nations , we are sad from Pakistan because we know Pakistanis as our brothers , we have many expectations from our Pakistanis brothers ,we know that brothers must have many expectations from their brothers, and brothers must help each other, it wont be fair for a brother to create for problems for his brother, at the same time all the countries in the world and in the region expand their cooperation with each other but we are just creating problems for each other so must know that its not fair, not good and will waste our time and resources.Recommend

  • Zabihullah
    Jun 16, 2016 - 4:32PM

    It is a brilliant article that reflects the prevailing ground reality. In spite existence of many common interests and needs of both nations Afghanistan and Pakistan for having of very friendly relation, why Pakistan does loss its image and diplomacy in Afghanistan and region. Yes, we all admit that still huge numbers of Afghans refugees are enjoying great hospitality of Pakistani, but it’s not enough argument to establish a perfect relation which results on boosting of economy between two countries. Having of a secure and peaceful Afghanistan is 100% needed for the economic development and stability in Pakistan. However, geographically and culturally India is a hard choice for Afghanistan being partner to build our country, but we are hardly pushed toward it because of your mistake and miscalculation. There is very simple differences and misunderstanding between the two governments to settle them through meaningful negotiation and using of current generation approach, but it seems intentionally not addressed by Pakistan, which will have long term negative consequences for both side of borders. We hope one day to have a very interactive and peaceful region.Recommend

  • PakistaniPashtun
    Jun 16, 2016 - 5:09PM

    Mr. Muhmand used fancy words and tried to portray a dangerous pictures interms of the consequences for Pakistan.
    Yes Pakistan did not registered refugees and yes we did not implement border management system during the past 30 or so years but we are doing it now. These are sops around the world in almost every country. Why is Mr. Muhmand not in favour of Pakistan opting something which we should have enforced years ago?
    Mr. Muhmand expects Pakistan to be all sugar when we are only getting hatred from the other side.
    What wrong did Pakistan do to Afghanistan in 1947 when they did not recognise us as a country and were one of the last ones to do so when they did?
    I agree with minister from balochistan that refugees must go back now. If Afghanistan can train an Army, buy weapons, run media etc against Pakistan they can also provide education, health and security etc to the afghan refugees that InshAllah are soon going to join AfghanistanRecommend

  • Khan
    Jun 16, 2016 - 5:22PM

    Tanvir your reply to Afghan is ept. Ungrateful people history proved n they would continue to suffer.Recommend

  • Shahid
    Jun 16, 2016 - 6:27PM

    It seems that you are more loyal to Afghanistan than is people like you who helped afghans to spread all over Pakistan and destroy our social fabric. You achieved highest civilian positions in Pakistan but I question your commitment to Pakistan. You may as well take residence in Afghanistan.Recommend

  • Shah
    Jun 16, 2016 - 7:08PM

    Author has made a case of keeping the border open to some extent
    But also has made some good observations
    It would be foolish and shortsighted to push the refugees out but the pace needs to be increased and these are eventually our assets and gifts for more prosperous and enlightened afghan society in the end.
    The emotional aspects should be calm down but with out any doubt Pakistan needs to build border at a fast pace and effective border management is compulsory with out any apology .
    Afghans are and will remain the brothers but every country has its strategy and Kabul despite Pakistans sincerity looks to Hinduvata.Recommend

  • Naeem Khan
    Jun 16, 2016 - 8:19PM

    I think that the ambassador’s analysis and reasoning are worth to look into and perhaps rethink to build gates. I am from Mardan and as a young person in the 70s used to to go to Kabul with out any passport or visa. All I used to do was to speak in Pushto on both side of the border, those were good times. Recommend

  • nadeem khan
    Jun 16, 2016 - 10:15PM

    Msr.rustom is right, if and only if we were in late 2000, its 2016 afghan diplomacy has vitally changed, those who are in govt (EX shemali etihad)since their birth they have preconceived opinion, in regards of pakistan. country has to play many balls to secure its existence, somewhere after 9/11 things went wrong, our pak policy was based on hypocrisy, we had this dual nature in opening ways to get dollars and spreading fire in return on neighbours soil. but the recent event is completley based on prejudice, showing the true face of shemali etihad, backup by indian lobby. its never possible for country to keep its border open never ever in the world u can single example like the pak afghan border, its inevitable for border to have tribes dispersed on both sides but no one can allow open border to everyone. afghan so far we know could never b our friend the hate our existance they treat pukhtoon like pigs in their country. we are not supposed to keep any soft corner for them.Recommend

  • Ghafour
    Jun 17, 2016 - 12:17AM

    @saqib: Before you ask the author your questions, I would recommend you to think about the death of Osama, Mullah Omar and the recent one, the Mullah Mansour, who was killed in a drone attack in Balochistan. Don’t you think it is Pakistani government who support Terrorism in the region? And, what about Haqani group, who lives in Peshawar and Islamabad?
    In fact, we always saying that good and friendly relationship is necessary for countries and this is what the author has pointed out in his article. We, as neighbors need to think rationally. Recommend

  • Rashida Khan
    Jun 17, 2016 - 6:26AM

    I hail the growing friendship between Baloch and Afghan nationals.Recommend

  • Maryam Cheema
    Jun 17, 2016 - 1:42PM

    With due respect, your opinion only reflected one side of the picture. What is so erroneous in it, if Pakistan is building something within its own territory? What is affecting Afghanistan so badly that they killed a MAJOR and one more person? Recommend

  • Ali
    Jun 17, 2016 - 3:10PM

    Send back all Afghans. Bring back all Pakistanis.

    Close the border. Enough is enough.

    If need be, make gates at all the 200+ entry points. But make it a sealed border.Recommend

  • Jamal
    Jun 17, 2016 - 3:13PM

    A lot of people will be squirming, but it is payback time.

    May retribution be swift and painful for the Afghans.Recommend

  • Last Word
    Jun 17, 2016 - 5:48PM

    The author has discussed the problem in depth and realistically. Pakistan is trying to punish the Afghans for following an independent foreign policy but in the process also causing harm to its own people. The Pak-Afghan divide is bound to get even bigger each passing day and lead to more military clashes which has never happened in the past. Pakistan unwittingly may open another front on its Western border which will undermine all the gains made in the recent operation. The faulty foreign policy followed by Pakistan of using so-called assets against neighbors and asserting Afghanistan to severe ties with India will prove to be totally counter-productive. US has already admonished Pakistan on the F-16 issue along with reduction of financial aid and change in regime next year may lead to slapping of sanctions and stoppage of international aid to Pakistan. The self-destructing foreign policy needs to reviewed on priority if Pakistan wants to avoid catastrophy. Recommend

  • Karachiwala
    Jun 17, 2016 - 9:48PM

    to the author:

    everything aside, borders have to be managed.There is no ill/bad intention to Monitor who is crossing.

    even US/Canada border requires Passport to travel.
    US citizen or GC holder can freely move across border, But Only Canadian citizen can do the same, not GC holder of Canada.

    All the history apart, good neighbor/ bad neighbor, brotherly relation or not, living here for 30 years or came yesterday….. Border has to be managed and refugees has to be documented.

    Look up the social fabric of our society, people of 60/70 bleed in tears.

    Torkham is a start, all the others are coming depending on the budget. i wonder how you miss that information.Recommend

  • Naresh
    Jun 17, 2016 - 9:56PM

    @Ali: Mr. Rustom, are you an Afghan or Pakistani? It seems your heart lies in Afghanistan.

    H. E. Rustam Shah Mohmand has been Pakistan’s Ambassador to Afghanistan as well as Secretary, Pakistani Ministry of Internal-Interior Affairs. I am sure his Degree of Patriotism to Pakistan will be higher than your Patriotism to Pakistan. The man has represented Pakistan and you must respect him, even if the Truth he states is not to your liking.

  • daudzai
    Jun 17, 2016 - 11:13PM

    Mr. Ali type of people will never understand such issues rather will become a reasons for more destruction.Recommend

  • Pakistani
    Jun 18, 2016 - 12:31AM

    “Secondly, facts suggest that over the last 10 years, hardly one per cent of Afghan nationals or refugees have been found involved covertly or overtly in sponsoring terror attacks in Pakistan”
    Do you know what one per cent of 3 million is ? 30,000
    It is a huge figure and can’t be neglected !Recommend

  • UN Employee
    Jun 18, 2016 - 5:33AM

    An amazing article, I salute you Rustam Shah! It is extremely unfair to blame impoverished Afghan refugees for terrorism or the Army Public School incident. With its policy of hostility towards Afghanistan, Pakistan only encourages and strengthens the bond of closer relationship between Afghanistan, India, Iran and Russia.

    The choice is yours Pakistan!Recommend

  • Rex Minor
    Jun 18, 2016 - 9:52AM

    The author is a lonely voice in the wilderness of the sea of ignorants of History. We have the descendents of the former Brtish colony conflict with those who never succumbed to foreign invasions.

    Rex MinorRecommend

  • Reply 2 Ali
    Jun 19, 2016 - 6:28AM

    Dear Ali, what border are you talking about? There is no border, Durand line pact expired 2 decades ago. Pakistan has no legal or moral ground to touch the line. Afghans in the southern side of the border are amongst their own brothers, they are not in Punjab or Sindh for them to be sent back.Recommend

  • saq
    Jun 26, 2016 - 1:39PM

    Dear author

    The bitter facts are these you have potrayed one side of coin Mr.Rustam.

    The People of KPK do not like Afghans . We Pakistanis believe they are ” Bin bulaye mehman’

    We consider them terrorist. Do You Disagree Mr. Rustam ?

    They are burden on Pakistani Govt. Do You Disagree Mr. Rustam ?

    These are the people who are involved in all major terrorist activities .Do You Disagree Mr. Rustam ?

    Narcotics culture , Kalashnikov culture , abduction in Pakistan is introduced by them .

    Your justification is not enough , we have sacrificed a lot . Afghan Govt should realize beggars are not choosers sir. Do you think it is praiseworthy when Afghan govt is involved in propaganda in Pakistan

    Last but not least how Afghanistan will survive Without us since it is landlockedRecommend

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